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105th Congress, 1st Session - - - - - - - - - - - House Document 105-18


 
     WILLAMETTE RIVER TEMPERATURE CONTROL, McKENZIE SUBBASIN, OREGON

                               __________

                             COMMUNICATION

                                  from

                  THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE ARMY
                             (CIVIL WORKS)

                              transmitting

  A LETTER FROM THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY DATED 
FEBRUARY 1, 1996, SUBMITTING A REPORT TOGETHER WITH ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 
       AND ILLUSTRATIONS. RECEIVED IN THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES NOVEMBER 21, 1996, PURSUANT TO SECTION 204 OF THE 1970 
                 FLOOD CONTROL ACT (PUBLIC LAW 91-611)

<GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT>


   January 7, 1997.--Referred to the Committee on Transportation and 
                Infrastructure and ordered to be printed


     WILLAMETTE RIVER TEMPERATURE CONTROL, McKENZIE SUBBASIN, OREGON
                                     

105th Congress, 1st Session - - - - - - - - - - - House Document 105-18


                 WILLAMETTE RIVER TEMPERATURE CONTROL,

                       McKENZIE SUBBASIN, OREGON

                               __________

                             COMMUNICATION

                                  from

                  THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE ARMY
                             (CIVIL WORKS)

                              transmitting

  A LETTER FROM THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY DATED 
FEBRUARY 1, 1996, SUBMITTING A REPORT TOGETHER WITH ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 
       AND ILLUSTRATIONS. RECEIVED IN THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES NOVEMBER 21, 1996, PURSUANT TO SECTION 204 OF THE 1970 
                 FLOOD CONTROL ACT (PUBLIC LAW 91-611)

<GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT>


   January 7, 1997.--Referred to the Committee on Transportation and 
                Infrastructure and ordered to be printed


                            C O N T E N T S
                              ----------                              
                                Volume I

                                                                   Page

Letter of Transmittal............................................   vii
Comments of the Office of Management and Budget..................    ix
Comments of the State of Oregon..................................     x
Comments of the Department of the Interior......................xv, xvi
Letter to the Secretary of the Interior..........................  xvii
Comments of the Department of Agriculture.......................xix, xl
Letter to the Secretary of Agriculture........................... xliii
Comments of the Department of Energy.............................   xlv
Comments of the Department of Transportation.....................xlviii
Comments of the Environmental Protection Agency..................xlviii
Report of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army.........     1
Report of the District Engineer:
    Executive Summary............................................     5
    1. Introduction..............................................     7
        1.1 Study Authority......................................     7
        1.2 Study Purpose........................................     9
        1.3 Study Area and Scope.................................     9
        1.4 Existing Projects....................................    12
            1.4.1 Blue River Lake................................    12
            1.4.2 Cougar Lake....................................    15
            1.4.3 Fishery Mitigation Aspects.....................    18
        1.5 Related Studies, Reports, and Existing Water Projects    18
            1.5.1 Willamette River Basin Reservoir System........    18
            1.5.2 Pacific Northwest Power Planning and 
                Conservation Act.................................    19
            1.5.3 McKenzie Subbasin, Fish Management Plan........    19
            1.5.4 Willamette System Temperature Control Study....    19
            1.5.5 Willamette River Basin Review..................    19
            1.5.6 Oregon Water Management Plan...................    20
            1.5.7 Blue River Hydropower..........................    20
            1.5.8 Forest Service and BLM Activities for the 
                Northern Spotted Owl.............................    21
            1.5.9 National Wild and Scenic River System (NWSRS)..    21
            1.5.10 Oregon Scenic Waterway Program................    21
    2. Description of the Study Area.............................    22
        2.1 Overview.............................................    22
        2.2 Topography and Geology...............................    22
        2.3 Hydrologic Conditions................................    22
            2.3.1 General Characteristics........................    22
            2.3.2 Climate........................................    23
            2.3.3 Flow Conditions................................    23
            2.3.4 Effects of the Corps Projects on the McKenzie 
                System...........................................    25
        2.4 Existing Thermal Conditions..........................    26
        2.5 Water Quality........................................    34
            2.5.1 Cougar and Blue River Lake.....................    34
            2.5.2 McKenzie Subbasin..............................    36
        2.6 Biological Environment...............................    36
        2.7 Fisheries and Aquatic Species........................    37
            2.7.1 Willamette Spring Chinook Salmon...............    37
            2.7.2 Native Rainbow Trout...........................    39
            2.7.3 Bull Trout.....................................    41
        2.8 Social and Economic Conditions.......................    42
        2.9 Recreation...........................................    42
        2.10 Cultural Resources..................................    43
    3. Plan Formulation..........................................    44
        3.1 Overview.............................................    44
        3.2 Problems and Opportunities...........................    44
            3.2.1 Study Objectives...............................    44
            3.2.2 Biological Objectives..........................    45
        3.3 Planning Constraints.................................    47
        3.4 Formulation and Screening of Alternatives............    47
            3.4.1 Without-Project Condition......................    48
            3.4.2 Nonstructural Alternatives.....................    49
            3.4.3 Structural Alternatives........................    50
        3.5 Performance of Selective Withdrawal Systems..........    54
            3.5.1 Overview.......................................    54
            3.5.2 Results as Measured by Average Temperature 
                Differences......................................    54
            3.5.3 Results as Measured by Degree-Days of Warming 
                and Cooling......................................    55
            3.5.4 Summary of Results.............................    56
        3.6 Ports vs Weirs.......................................    59
        3.7 Environmental Outputs of the Alternative Scenarios...    59
            3.7.1 Assumptions for the Spring Chinook Analysis....    60
            3.7.2 Results for Fry Emergence......................    61
            3.7.3 Incremental Analysis for Spring Chinook Adult 
                Returns..........................................    61
            3.7.4 Thermal Potential for Spring Chinook Movement..    64
            3.7.5 Resident Trout Outputs.........................    66
            3.7.6 Bull Trout Outputs.............................    66
        3.8 Selection of the Final Plan..........................    67
    4. Description of the Selected Plan..........................    69
        4.1 Cougar Selective Withdrawal System...................    69
        4.2 Blue River Selective Withdrawal System...............    71
        4.3 Temperature Control Operations.......................    71
        4.4 Construction Considerations..........................    73
            4.4.1 General........................................    73
            4.4.2 Construction at Cougar Lake....................    73
            4.4.3 Diversion Considerations at Cougar.............    73
            4.4.4 Construction at Blue River Lake................    76
            4.4.5 Diversion Considerations at Blue River.........    76
        4.5 Hydrology During Construction........................    77
            4.5.1 Flood Control Evaluation.......................    77
            4.5.2 Flow Augmentation..............................    78
        4.6 Operation and Maintenance consideration..............    90
        4.7 Hazardous, Toxic, and Radiological Waste (HTRW) 
            Investigation........................................    90
        4.8 Cost Estimate........................................    91
        4.9 Construction Impacts of the Selected Plan............    94
            4.9.1 Overview.......................................    94
            4.9.2 Water Quality Impacts..........................    95
            4.9.3 Biological Impacts.............................    96
            4.9.4 Threatened and Endangered Species..............    98
            4.9.5 Cultural Resources.............................    98
            4.9.6 Socio-Economic Impacts.........................    98
            4.9.7 Hydropower Losses..............................    99
        4.10 Operational Impacts of the Selected Plan............   100
            4.10.1 Biological Impacts............................   100
            4.10.2 Water Quality Impacts.........................   100
            4.10.3 Hydropower Losses.............................   100
        4.11 Coordination and Monitoring.........................   101
            4.11.1 Interagency Committee.........................   101
            4.11.2 Temperature and Fishery Monitoring............   101
    5 Plan Implementation........................................   102
        5.1 Design and Construction..............................   102
        5.2 Real Estate Requirements.............................   102
        5.3 Non-Federal Cost Sharing.............................   105
    6. Coordination and, Public Views and Comments...............   106
    7. Conclusions...............................................   109
    8. Recommendations...........................................   112
Recommendations of the Division Engineer.........................   113
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).............................   114
Section 404(b)(1) Evaluation.....................................   286
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Coordination Act Report (CAR).....   291

       EXHIBITS ACCOMPANYING THE REPORT OF THE DISTRICT ENGINEER

    Exhibit A, Temperature Data and Modelling Analysis...........   427
    Exhibit B, Analysis for Low Flow Augmentation During 
        Construction.............................................   474
    Exhibit C, Correspondence....................................   510
                                 ------                                

      APPENDICES ACCOMPANYING THE REPORT OF THE DISTRICT ENGINEER
             (Volume II, Technical Appendices, not printed)

Technical Appendices.
    Appendix A: Economic Analysis.
        Attachment A1. Socioeconomic Base Study.
        Attachment A2. Recreation Analysis.
        Attachment A3. Hydropower Production Losses.
    Appendix B: Engineering Analysis for Blue Lake.
    Appendix C: Engineering Analysis for Cougar Lake.
    Appendix D: Base Line Cost Estimate.

                            List of Figures

Figure 1--Willamette Basin Location Map..........................     8
Figure 2--McKenzie River Subbasin Study Area.....................    10
Figure 3--Pre- and Post-Dam Temperatures Below Blue River Dam....    12
Figure 4--General Plan and Features, Blue River Lake.............    13
Figure 5--General Plan and Features, Cougar Lake.................    16
Figure 6--Pre- and Post-Project Flows of the Blue and South Fork     27
  Rivers.
Figure 7--Existing Thermal Conditions at Blue River Lake.........    28
Figure 8--Existing Thermal Conditions at Cougar Lake.............    29
Figure 9--Typical Temperature Profiles at Blue River and Cougar      32
  Lakes.
Figure 10--Temperature Profiles for Blue River and Cougar Lakes..    33
Figure 11--Reservoir Schedule Diagrams for Blue River and Cougar     35
  Lakes.
Figure 12--Modelled Temperature Targets..........................    46
Figure 13--Schematic Diagrams of Localized and Deep Tube Mixers..    51
Figure 14--Temperature Control Effects on the mainstream McKenzie    58
  from SWS.
Figure 15--Thermal Potential for Fish Movement...................    65
Figure 16--Ported SWS for Cougar Lake............................    70
Figure 17--Ported SWS for Blue River Lake........................    72
Figure 18--Diversion Plan for Cougar Lake........................    75
Figure 19--Diversion Plan for Blue River Lake....................    79
Figure 20--Elevations During Construction and Flood Routing,         80
  Cougar Lake.
Figure 21--Elevations During Construction and Flood Routing, Blue    82
  River Lake.
Figure 22--Order of Reservoir Drawdown and Conservation Storage      83
  Amounts.
Figure 23--McKenzie River Flows Near Vida During Construction....    86
Figure 24--Hills Creek Elevations During Construction............    88
Figure 25--Lookout Point Elevations During Construction..........    89
Figure 26--Implementation Schedule for the Selected Plan.........   103

                             List of Tables

Table 1--Pertinent Data, Blue River Lake.........................    14
Table 2--Pertinent Data, Cougar Lake.............................    17
Table 3--Length, Elevation, and Average Gradient of the McKenzie     23
  and Tributaries.
Table 4--Recorded and Estimated mean Annual Flows of the McKenzie    24
  and Tributaries.
Table 5--Recommended Water Temperature Ranges....................    45
Table 6--SWS Performance as Measured by Average Temperature          55
  Differences.
Table 7--SWS Performance as Measured by Degree-Days of Warming       56
  and Cooling.
Table 8--SWS Achievement of Target Temperatures (in percent of       57
  the time).
Table 9--Average Annual NED Costs for Alternative Scenarios......    62
Table 10--Marginal Costs for Scenarios...........................    63
Table 11--Summary of Environmental Outputs by Alternative            68
  Scenario.
Table 12--Estimated Conservation Flows and Elevation Differences     84
  During Construction.
Table 13--Average Monthly Outflows During Construction...........    85
Table 14--Monthly Average Flows at Control Points During             87
  Construction.
Table 15--Total Cost Summary for Blue River and Cougar...........    92
Table 16--Contract Cost Summary by Project.......................    93


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Pages: 1

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