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H.Doc.107-211 CONTINUATION OF EMERGENCY WITH RESPECT TO BURMA ...
107th Congress, 2d Session - - - - - - - - - - - - House Document 107-210 STATUS OF UNITED STATES EFFORTS REGARDING IRAQ'S COMPLIANCE WITH UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS __________ COMMUNICATION from THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES transmitting A REPORT ON THE STATUS OF EFFORTS TO OBTAIN IRAQ'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL, PURSUANT TO 50 U.S.C. 1541 <GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT> May 7, 2002.--Referred to the Committee on International Relations and ordered to be printed The White House, Washington, May 3, 2002. Hon. J. Dennis Hastert, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Washington, DC. Dear Mr. Speaker: Consistent with the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution (Public Law 102-1) and as part of my effort to keep the Congress fully informed, I am providing a report prepared by my Administration on the status of efforts to obtain Iraq's compliance with the resolutions adopted by the United Nations Security Council. The last report, consistent with Public Law 102-1, was transmitted on January 24, 2002. Sincerely, George W. Bush. Status of U.S. Efforts Regarding Iraq's Compliance With UN Security Council Resolutions Overview As long as Saddam Hussein remains in power, he will continue to threaten the well-being of the Iraqi people, the peace of the region, and vital U.S. interests. We are continuing our Iraq policy review to determine the best means of advancing our interests. We have already strengthened international consensus on the need to change the international community's approach to Iraq through the UN Security Council's (UNSC) unanimous adoption of UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1382, providing for the UNSC to implement the Goods Review List (GRL) as the basis for UN controls on Iraq beginning on May 30, 2002. This approach will focus UN controls to prevent Iraq from acquiring items to support Iraq's ballistic missile, conventional military or nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons programs. We are continuing consultations with other UNSC members to ensure adoption and implementation of the GRL. We continue to help maintain No-Fly Zones over northern and southern Iraq to carry out vital UNSC resolutions in an effort to help ensure the safety of citizens of specific ethnic and religious groups, and Iraq's neighbors. We are also considering how best to achieve our objective of regime change. We will continue to contain the threats posed by Iraq, but over the long term, the most effective and lasting way to end this threat is through a change of government in Baghdad. To this end, we support the Iraqi opposition as part of our program to support a transition to democracy in Iraq. As part of that effort, the Iraqi National Congress (INC) continues to be funded for a variety of activities by the State Department, and continues to receive training under the drawdown authority of the Iraq Liberation Act (ILA). Iraq continues to reject UNSC Resolution 1284, a binding resolution adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, including its requirement that Iraq provide the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with immediate, unconditional and unrestricted access to Iraq and its facilities, equipment, records, and personnel. Nonetheless, the UN continues to implement those parts of the resolution which do not require Iraqi cooperation. In its quarterly report to the UNSC on February 26, 2002, UNMOVIC provided an update on measures it is taking to prepare for inspections in Iraq. UNMOVIC Executive Chairman Dr. Hans Blix has stated that UNMOVIC inspectors are prepared and ready to return to Iraq. To serve a useful purpose, a UN inspections regime must have the mandate, resources, access, cooperation, and support necessary to function at a high standard of effectiveness. A UN inspections regime that lacks the capability or otherwise fails to function at such a standard of effectiveness could significantly harm U.S. interests. We continue to consult regularly with Dr. Blix and his staff to provide the best support possible. In its semi-annual report to the UN Security Council on October 5, 2001, and IAEA indicated it is similarly prepared to return to Iraq, but that the longer the suspension of resolution-related inspections lasts, the more difficult it will be and the more time will be required for the Agency to re-establish a level of knowledge comparable to that achieved at the end of 1998. Ambassador Yuli Vorontsov, the Secretary General's high- level coordinator for Kuwait Issues, presented his periodic report on Kuwaiti and third-country national prisoners and stolen Kuwaiti property on December 20, 2001. These reports demonstrate Iraq's continuing failure to comply fully with its obligations under relevant UNSCRs. The Iraqi Government continues to deny Ambassador Vorontsov entry to the country. We have requested that Ambassador Vorontsov attend any future meetings between the SYG and the Iraqi Foreign Minister. The Oil-for-Food (OFF) program, which is designed to provide for the humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people as long as UN sanctions remain in place, continues to function effectively. Iraq exported over $10 billion worth of oil in 2001 with the proceeds going to a UN-controlled escrow account. On November 29, the UNSC extended the current phase of the OFF program for an additional 180 days. U.S. and Coalition Force Levels in the Gulf Region Saddam Hussein's record of aggressive behavior necessitates the continued deployment of a highly capable force in the region in order to deter Baghdad and respond to any threat it might pose to its neighbors,the reconstitution of its weapons of massdestruction (WMD), or movement against the Kurds in northern Iraq. We will maintain a strong posture and have established a rapid reinforcement capability to supplement our forces in the Gulf, if needed. OPERATION NORTHERN WATCH AND OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH Aircraft of the United States and coalition partners patrolling the No-Fly Zones over Iraq under Operations NORTHERN WATCH and SOUTHERN WATCH are routinely tracked by Iraqi radar, fired upon by anti-aircraft artillery, and attacked with surface-to-air missiles. Our aircrews continue to respond in self-defense to threats against and attacks on our aircraft patrolling the No-Fly Zones. MARITIME INTERCEPT OPERATIONS The U.S.-led maritime Multinational Interception Force (MIF) continues to enforce UN sanctions in the Gulf. The United States continues to approach potential participants in the MIF to augment current partners. Canadian, Australian, and British forces are currently operating with U.S. forces. In large part, member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) continue to support the MIF. The UAE accepts the vast majority of vessels diverted for violating UN sanctions against Iraq. Kuwait continues to accept diverts and is receptive when approached. Kuwait has also increased its ability to deal with smuggled oil by contracting a bunkering tanker, further indicative of its continued support. Other GCC nations are more hesitant to accept diverted vessels (Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain have accepted ships in the past, but now refuse), but all provide support in some form to the enforcement of UNSCRs against Iraq. From December 2001 through February 2002, monthly totals of smuggled petroleum products through the Gulf averaged less than those in the previous three-month period. This reduction is most likely due to lower oil prices and an increased MIF presence that makes interception of suspect vessels more likely. Iran continues to deny use of its territorial waters to all but the largest of smuggling vessels from which significant fees can be obtained. The MIF continues to serve as a critical deterrent to the smuggling of prohibited items and products into and out of Iraq. We need to continually reassess the adequacy of MIF force levels as conditions develop. UNMOVIC/IAEA: WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION There have been no Council-mandated weapon inspections in Iraq since December 15, 1998. Iraq's defiance of the international consensus, as expressed by UNSCR 1284, has meant that no progress has been made in addressing Iraq's outstanding disarmament obligations. Iraq remains in violation of its obligations to end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles. UNMOVIC has largely completed the hiring of its core staff in New York and is continuing to hire people in an on-call or ``roster'' category, including Americans. UNMOVIC has completed five training courses and is planning to hold a sixth course in late 2002. The United States continues to provide UNMOVIC with course instructors and facilities for hands-on training. We consult with Dr. Blix and his staff regularly to provide the best support possible. Most recently, on January 10, Dr. Blix met with Secretary of State Powell, Dr. Condoleezza Rice, and OASD/USDP Douglas Feith in Washington. On February 26, 2002, UNMOVIC provided its latest report on measures it is taking to prepare for inspections in Iraq. Dr. Blix has stated that UNMOVIC inspectors are prepared and ready to return to Iraq. The United States also continues to provide support to and hold regular consultations with the IAEA Iraq Action Team. In its semi-annual report to the UN Security Council on October 5, 2001, the IAEA indicated that it has maintained its readiness to resume verification and monitoring activities in Iraq but that the longer the suspension of resolution related inspections lasts, the more difficult it will be and the more time will be required for the Agency to re-establish a level of knowledge comparable to that achieved at the end of 1998. DUAL-USE ITEMS Although the OFF program revenues are designated for humanitarian purposes only, we remain concerned that Iraq is abusing this program in an attempt to acquire goods and materials for its weapons programs. Currently, the United States, as a member of the UN Iraq Sanctions Committee, reviews all contracts under the OFF program (unless the items are on alist pre-approved for expedited humanitarian export) to ensure that prohibited items are not exported to Iraq and dual-use items are not diverted to Iraqi weapons programs. On November 29, 2001, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1382. In this resolution, the Council agreed to adopt and implement a Goods Review List (GRL) by May 30, 2002, subject to any refinements agreed to by the Council prior to that date. When implemented, the GRL will maintain UN controls on items deemed useful in supporting Iraq's ballistic missile, conventional military, and nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programs. At the same time, this approach will lift economic sanctions on purely civilian trade with Iraq. UNSCR 1051 established a joint UNSCOM/IAEA unit to monitor Iraq's authorized imports of WMD and missile-related items (WMD/missile-related goods are also known as ``1051''-listed goods). UNSCR 1051 also established lists of items subject to review in all four weapons categories--ballistic missile, nuclear, chemical and biological. As we previously reported, these lists were updated by UNMOVIC and the IAEA. Under UN Security Council resolution 1284, UNMOVIC has assumed this responsibility from UNSCOM, with the added requirement to identify if, in their estimation, a contract contains a 1051- listed good. UNMOVIC and the IAEA have continued to perform this duty during this reporting period. Under UNSCR 1382, UNMOVIC and the IAEA would be charged with screening all oil for food contracts for GRL-listed items. Under this approach, the GRL includes the 1051 lists and items that Iraq could use to support its conventional military. Since weapons inspectors left Iraq in December 1998, the UN Office of the Iraq Programme is the principal organization allowed to observe goods going into Iraq under the OFF program. Various UN agencies have provided end-use verification to varying low degrees. In the absence of weapons inspectors and other experts on the ground in Iraq, The United States has placed holds on a number of prohibited or dual-use contracts that otherwise likely would have been approved if UNMOVIC/IAEA monitoring were available. The UN's ``Oil-for-Food'' Program We continue to support the international community's efforts to provide for the humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people through the OFF program. Under UN control, the proceeds of Iraqi oil sales are used to purchase humanitarian goods, fund UN Compensation Commission awards against Iraq arising out of its invasion and occupation of Kuwait, and to meet UN administrative costs. As of March 15, 2002, Iraq had exported nearly $3.0 billion worth of oil during the eleventh six-month phase of the OFF program, which began on November 30, 2001. According to UN data since the start of the OFF program, 21,575 contracts for humanitarian goods worth over $31 billion have been approved through January 31, 2002. To streamline the approval process for humanitarian goods, we have agreed with the UN on a fast-track approval process for some goods. However, as purchases under the program have moved from basic humanitarian supplies to more expensive infrastructure projects, the number and value of U.S. ``holds'' on contracts have increased. The Security Council's commitment in recently adopted resolution 1382 to implement the Goods Review List and related procedures on May 30, 2002, will help eliminate holds (contracts would either be approved or submitted to the sanctions committee members for approval or submitted to the sanctions committee members for approval or denial)), while ensuring that the Iraqi regime has less access to the goods most important to its rearmament efforts. The OFF program maintains a separate program for northern Iraq, administered directly by the UN in consultation with the local authorities. This program, which the United States strongly supports, ensures that when Iraq contracts for the purchase of humanitarian goods, 13 percentage of the funds generated under the OFF program are spent on items for northern Iraq. Humanitarian efforts in northern Iraq have led to a marked contrasts between the health of the population of the north, where indicators show an improvement, and of the population living in the areas where the UN does not administer the program. International humanitarian programs, including most importantly the OFF Program, have steadily improved the life of the average Iraqi and led to improvements in health care, water, sanitation, agriculture, education, and other areas, while denying Saddam Hussein control over most of Iraq's oil revenues. However, as noted in a February 26, 2002, UN report, the Government of Iraq is not committed to using the funds
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