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H.Doc.107-57 PERIODIC REPORT ON SIGNIFICANT NARCOTICS TRAFFICKERS CENTERED IN ...
107th Congress, 1st Session - - - - - - - - - - - - - House Document 107-56 STATUS OF UNITED STATES EFFORTS REGARDING IRAQ'S COMPLIANCE WITH UNSC RESOLUTIONS __________ COMMUNICATION from THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES Transmitting A REPORT ON THE STATUS OF EFFORTS TO OBTAIN IRAQ'S COMPLIANCE WITH VARIOUS RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL, PURSUANT TO 50 U.S.C. 1541 <GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT> April 24, 2001.--Referred to the Committee on International Relations and ordered to be printed The White House, Washington, April 12, 2001. Hon. J. Dennis Hastert, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Washington, DC. Dear Mr. Speaker: Consistent with the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution (Public Law 102-1), and as part of my effort to keep the Congress fully informed, I am reporting on the status of efforts to obtain Iraq's compliance with various resolutions adopted by the United Nations Security Council. The last report, consistent with Public Law 102-1, was transmitted on January 19, 2001. Sincerely, George W. Bush. Status of U.S. Efforts Regarding Iraq's Compliance With UNSC Resolutions Overview As long as Saddam Hussein remains in power, he will continue to threaten the well-being of the Iraqi people, the peace of the region, and vital U.S. interests. We are conducting a policy review to determine the best means of advancing our interests. There are several elements of this review, including strengthening international cooperation to minimize Iraq's ability to re-arm. We are also considering how best to achieve our objective of regime change. We will continue to contain the threats posed by Iraq, but, over the long-term, the best way to eliminate them is through a change of government in Baghdad. To this end, we support the Iraqi Opposition as part of our program to support a transition to democracy in Iraq. The Opposition has made measurable progress in the past year in reestablishing its presence, developing its plans, beginning administrative and some program operations using United States Government funding, and beginning training under the Iraq Liberation Act (ILA). Iraq continues to reject United Nations Security Council Resolution 1284, a binding resolution adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, including its requirement that Iraq provide the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with immediate, unconditional, and unrestricted access to suspected WMD sites in Iraq. Nonetheless, the UN continues to implement those parts of the resolution which do not require Iraqi cooperation. In its quarterly report to the Council on February 27, 2001, UNMOVIC updated the UN Security Council on measures it is taking to prepare for inspections in Iraq, and indicated it continues to improve on its previously reported state of readiness to conduct inspections. We consult regularly with Dr. Hans Blix and his staff to provide the best support possible. Ambassador Yuli Vorontsov, the Secretary General's high- level coordinator for Kuwait Issues, presented his first report on stolen Kuwaiti property on June 14, 2000, and on August 17, 2000, he submitted his second report to the council on Kuwaiti and third-country national prisoners. Both of these reports demonstrate Iraq's continuing failure to cooperate fully with its obligations to the international community. The Iraqi Government continues to deny Ambassador Vorontsov entry to the country. The oil-for-food program, which is designed to provide for the humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people as long as UN sanctions remain in place, continues to expand. Iraq exported $17.8 billion worth of oil in 2000 with the proceeds going to UN-controlled escrow account. On December 5, 2000, the Council extended the program for an additional 180 days, continuing its past practice. U.S. and Coalition Force Levels in the Gulf Region Saddam Hussein's record of aggressive behavior necessitates the deployment of a highly capable force in the region in order to deter Baghdad and respond to any threat it might pose to its neighbors, the reconstitution of its WMD program, or movement against the Kurds in northern Iraq. We will continue to maintain a strong posture and have established a rapid reinforcement capability to supplement our forces in the Gulf, if needed. Operation NORTHERN WATCH and Operation SOUTHERN WATCH Aircraft of the United States and coalition partners patrolling the No-Fly Zones over Iraq under Operations NORTHERN WATCH and SOUTHERN WATCH are still routinely tracked by Iraqi radar, are regularly engaged by antiaircraft artillery, and on occasion, are attacked by surface-to-air missiles. Our aircrews continue to respond in self-defense to threats against and attacks on our aircraft patrolling the No-Fly Zones. One recent example of our continued response to Iraqi provocations was the February 16 response against selected air defense targets. Leading up to that date, Iraq had made significant upgrades to its air defense posture, and had been threatening allied pilots more frequently as they patrolled the No-Fly Zones. While this response received significant media attention, it was carried out in accordance with CENTCOM's well-established response options. Maritime Intercept Operations The U.S.-led maritime Multinational Interception Force (MIF) continues to enforce UN sanctions in the Gulf. The United States continues to approach potential participants in the MIF to augment current partners. A Polish special forces boarding team completed three months of participation in January 2001. An Argentine boarding team was scheduled to complete itsdeployment in March. Australia plant to send a frigate and a maritime patrol aircraft in late summer. Member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) continue to support the MIF. The UAE accepts the vast majority of vessels diverted for violating UN sanctions against Iraq, with Kuwait a distant second. While other GCC nations are reluctant to accept diverted vessels, all provide support to the enforcement of UNSCRs against Iraq. From September through December 2000, the smuggling of petroleum products through the Gulf was significantly reduced, with monthly totals the lowest in almost two years. This reduction was due primarily to the fact that Iran generally denied smugglers access to its territorial waters, and possibly due to the apparent opening of the Syrian pipeline. While there is no indication that Iran has re-opened its territorial seas to smugglers, and while the monthly smuggling totals remain relatively low, there has been a steady increase since January. In early March, 2001, MIF forces observed an exchange of gunfire between a smuggling vessel and an Iranian vessel. Though no coalition forces were involved, this was the first time in ten years of MIF operations that we have encountered an armed smuggler. The MIF, and our ability to rapidly augment it, will continue to serve as a critical deterrent to both the smuggling of petroleum products out of Iraq, and the smuggling of prohibited items into Iraq. As our Iraq policy develops, we will need to assess whether MIF force levels are adequate. unmovic/iaea: weapons of mass destruction There have been no Council-mandated inspections in Iraq since December 15, 1998. Iraq's defiance of the international consensus, as expressed by Resolution 1284, has meant that no progress has been made in addressing Iraq's outstanding disarmament obligations, Iraq remains in violation of its obligations to end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles. UNMOVIC has largely completed the hiring of its core staff in New York and is continuing to hire people in an on-call or ``roster'' category, including Americans. UNMOVIC has completed its first three training courses and will hold a fourth in May 2001. For its first training program, the United States provided UNMOVIC with course instructors and facilities for hands-on training. We consult with Dr. Blix and his staff regularly to provide the best support possible. On February 27, UNMOVIC updated the UN Security Council on measures it is taking to prepare for inspections in Iraq. dual-use imports Although the ``oil-for-food'' program revenues are designated for humanitarian purposes only, we remain concerned that Iraq is using this program in an attempt to acquire goods and materials for its weapons programs. The United States, as a member of the UN Iraq Sanctions Committee, generally review all contracts under the ``oil-for-food'' program to ensure that items that are explicitly prohibited or pose significant duel- use concerns are not allowed to be imported. Resolution 1051 established a joint UNSCOM/IAEA unit to monitor Iraq's authorized imports of dual-use WMD items (dual- use goods are also known as ``1051''-listed goods). Under UN Security Council Resolution 1284, UNMOVIC has assumed this responsibility from UNSCOM, with the added requirement to identify if, in its estimation, a contract contains a ``1051''- listed good. Since weapons inspectors left Iraq in December 1998, the UN Office of the Iraq Programme is the only organization allowed to observe goods going into Iraq under the ``oil-for-good'' program. In the absence of weapons inspectors and other experts on the ground in Iraq, the United States has placed holds on a number of dual-use contracts that otherwise might have been approved with UNMOVIC/IAEA monitoring. the un's ``oil-for-food'' program We continue to support the international community's efforts to provide for the humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people through the ``oil-for-food'' program. In Resolution 1284, the UN Security Council authorized Iraq to export as much petroleum and petroleum products as required to meet humanitarian needs of the Iraqi population, and for other specified purposes. Under UN control, the proceeds are used to purchase humanitarian goods, fund UNCC awards against Iraq arising out of its invasion and occupation of Kuwait, and to meet UN administrative costs. As of March 9, Iraq has exported more than $2.0 billion worth of oil during the ninth six-month phase of the ``oil-for-food'' program, which began on December 5, 2000. According to UN data since the start of the ``oil-for- food'' program 14,118 contracts for humanitarian goods worth nearly $20 billion have beenapproved through January 31, 2001. To streamline the approval process for humanitarian goods, we have agreed with the UN on a fast-track approval process for some goods. However, as purchases under the program have moved from basic humanitarian supplies to more expensive infrastructure projects, the number and value of U.S. ``holds'' on contracts has increased. We view Resolution 1284 as a vehicle for significant improvement of the humanitarian situation in Iraq and are eager to see all aspects of it implemented as rapidly as possible. The ``oil-for-food'' program maintains a separate program for northern Iraq. Administered directly by the UN in consultation with the local authorities. This program, which the United States strongly supports, ensures that when Iraq contracts for the purchase of humanitarian goods, 13 percent of the funds generated under the ``oil-for-food'' program are spent on items for northern Iraq. International humanitarian programs including, most importantly, the ``oil-for-food'' program have steadily improved the life of the average Iraqi and led to improvements in healthcare, water, sanitation, agriculture, education, and other areas, while denying Saddam Hussein control over Iraq's oil revenues. However, as noted in a March 2 UN report, the Government of Iraq is not using the funds available through the ``oil-for- food'' program to improve the health and welfare of the Iraqi people. Reduced oil exports, and the conversion of oil funds to euros from dollars, could cost the program more than $6 billion; another $4 billion remain unobligated in the ``oil- for-food'' escrow account. In addition, Iraqi contracting delays, cuts in food, medicine, educational and other humanitarian sectors, and government attempts to shut down humanitarian NGO operations in northern Iraq demonstrate that the Iraqi regime is attempting to undermine the effectiveness of the program. We will continue to work with the UN Secretariat, other members of the Security Council, and others in the international community to ensure that the implementation of 1284, and other relevant UNSCRs, better enables the humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people to be met while denying political or economic benefits to the Baghdad regime. flight control regime UNSC resolutions are open to competing interpretations regarding international flights to Baghdad. The UNSC has so far unsuccessfully attempted to reach a consensus agreement on new procedures for international flights. In the absence of an agreement, we continue to press for adherence to existing Sanctions Committee procedures, which allow for Committee approval of flights with a demonstrable humanitarian purpose. Most flights have complied with those procedures. northern iraq: kurdish reconciliation The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) continue their efforts to implement the September 17, 1998 reconciliation agreement. They work together effectively in a number of areas, including joint efforts to bring the needs of their region to the attention of the UN and the international community, and within the larger Iraqi national democratic opposition movement. The situation in northern Iraq is not settled, however, and we continue to look for ways to encourage the parties to make greater progress toward resolving their differences. the human rights situation in iraq The human rights situation in Iraq continues to fall severely short of international norms. UNSCR 688 expressly notes that the consequences of the regime's repression of its own people constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region. It also demands immediate access by
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