Home > 108th Congressional Documents > H.Doc.108-34 BENCHMARKS FOR A SUSTAINABLE PEACE ...

H.Doc.108-34 BENCHMARKS FOR A SUSTAINABLE PEACE ...


Google
 
Web GovRecords.org





                                     

108th Congress, 1st Session - - - - - - - - - - - - - House Document 
                                                           108-33
 
                           KOSOVO BENCHMARKS

                               __________

                                MESSAGE

                                  from

                   THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

                              transmitting

 A REPORT ON THE PROGRESS MADE IN ACHIEVING THE MILITARILY SIGNIFICANT 
  BENCHMARKS FOR CONDITIONS THAT WOULD ACHIEVE A SUSTAINABLE PEACE IN 
                                 KOSOVO

<GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT>


  February 5, 2003.--Message and accompanying papers referred to the 
      Committees on International Relations, Armed Services, and 
                Appropriations and ordered to be printed
To the Congress of the United States:
    Pursuant to section 1212 of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001, Public Law 106-398, I 
hereby submit a report, prepared by my Administration, on the 
progress made in achieving the militarily significant 
benchmarks for conditions that would achieve a sustainable 
peace in Kosovo and ultimately allow for the withdrawal of the 
United States military presence in Kosovo.
    The term ``militarily significant'' relates to tasks and 
objectives significant from a military standpoint that once 
accomplished, would allow for withdrawal of military forces 
from Kosovo. In the establishment of the Kosovo benchmarks, 
four critical tasks for NATO forces were identified: military 
stability; public security; border/boundary issues; and war 
crimes/support to the International Criminal Tribunal for the 
Former Yugoslavia. Objectives for these tasks were drawn from 
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, the NATO 
Operations Plan, the Military Technical Agreement, and the 
Kosovo Liberation Army Undertaking.
    I anticipate that Kosovo Force--and U.S. participation in 
it--will gradually reduce in size as public security conditions 
improve and Kosovars assume increasing responsibility for their 
own self-government.

                                                    George W. Bush.
    The White House, January 31, 2003.
                           Kosovo Benchmarks

                              INTRODUCTION

    Section 1212(a) of Public Law 106-398, The Floyd D. Spence, 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (the 
Act), requires that ``The President shall develop militarily 
significant benchmarks for conditions that would achieve a 
sustainable peace in Kosovo and ultimately allow for the 
withdrawal of the U.S. military presence in Kosovo.'' Pursuant 
to Section 1212(b) of the Act, I am providing a report, 
prepared by my Administration, to Congress on progress in 
Kosovo toward achieving such militarily significant benchmarks. 
The report details developments from June 15 to December 31, 
2002.
    The Foreign Ministers and Defense Ministers of NATO took 
important decisions during their Spring 2002 ministerials 
regarding a regional approach in the Balkans, including Kosovo. 
As a result of those decisions, the Kosovo Force (KFOR) was 
scheduled to be reduced from 36,000 as of June 2002 to 32,000 
by December 2002, and 29,400 by June 2003. In fact, KFOR actual 
troop strength has already dropped below the level of committed 
troop contributions. More recently, NATO Heads of State noted 
the Joint Operations Area Implementation Update at the Prague 
Summit in November 2002, and called for exploration of options 
for further rationalization and force restructuring.

                               BACKGROUND

    The benchmarks measure progress in achieving a sustainable 
peace in Kosovo. The objectives and tasks were drawn from 
several important documents: the NATO Operation Plan for Kosovo 
(OPLAN 10413); United Nations Security Council Resolution 
(UNSCR) 1244 (1999); the Military Technical Agreement (MTA) 
between KFOR and the Governments of the Federal Republic of 
Yugoslavia (FRY) and the Republic of Serbia; and the 
Undertaking of Demilitarization and Transformation of the 
Kosovo Liberation Army (the Undertaking).
    Significant progress has been made in Kosovo since the 
establishment of KFOR and the U.N. Interim Administration 
Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). KFOR has completed several military 
tasks specified in OPLAN 10413 and UNSCR 1244. The remaining 
tasks are of a continuous or recurring nature and provide for 
the unimpeded operation of UNMIK, freedom of movement for 
minorities, and the safe return of displaced persons and 
refugees. KFOR efforts have helped UNMIK to make substantial 
progress in implementing UNSCR 1244: reconstruction is well-
advanced; free and fair elections held three times; more than 
5,200 multi-ethnic Kosovo police trained and deployed; and a 
new constitutional framework for provisional self-government 
promulgated.
    Security challenges remain in the form of ethnically 
oriented, politically extreme, and criminally motivated armed 
groups who threaten to compromise these accomplishments, both 
through their actions in Kosovo and to a lesser extent in 
southern Serbia and Macedonia. Rather than Yugoslav and Serbian 
forces posing a continued risk, these internal factors are now 
the primary threat to public security within Kosovo. KFOR and 
UNMIK will have to continue to cooperate over the coming months 
to deter and disrupt the activities of these groups, and 
continue to ensure stability in Kosovo and, by extension, the 
surrounding region. Increased refugee and Internally Displaced 
Persons returns, problems with the continued ethnic division of 
North Mitrovica, potential International Criminal Tribunal for 
the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) indictments, arrests of high-
profile Kosovar political or criminal figures, demarcation of 
the Kosovo-Macedonia border, and decentralization of political 
power will present additional challenges. Kosovo's greatest 
challenge now is the development of governmental, economic, 
social, and security infrastructures capable of providing a 
safe, secure, and prosperous environment for all its 
inhabitants.

                            PROGRESS REVIEW

    The benchmarks depict progress on four overarching tasks 
and related objectives that will allow for the withdrawal of 
U.S. military forces from Kosovo. They are: Military Stability; 
Public Security; Border and Boundary Issues; and War Crimes.
1. Task: Military stability
            Objectives:
    <bullet> Withdrawal of Yugoslav and Serbian Security Forces 
from Kosovo.
    <bullet> Demilitarization of the Kosovo Liberation Army 
(KLA) and other armed Kosovar-Albanian groups.
    <bullet> Deterrence of renewed hostilities, maintenance 
and, where necessary, enforcement of the cease-fire.
    Progress on these objectives and the benchmarks associated 
with them has been very good. FRY forces have withdrawn from 
Kosovo and have adhered to all military agreements, the KLA has 
been demilitarized and there are no ongoing hostilities in 
Kosovo.
            Benchmarks:

a. The cease-fire has been maintained and FRY has adhered to the MTA

    The rampant ethnic cleansing and the killing of spring 1999 
is now history and neither party to the conflict has resumed 
military action. FRY forces left Kosovo as called for in the 
MTA. In 2001 and 2002, NATO oversaw reductions in the Air 
Safety Zone (ASZ); in 2001 FRY forces returned to the Ground 
Safety Zone (GSZ) in southern Serbia as part of a political 
agreement to end fighting between government forces and ethnic 
Albanian groups in southern Serbia. This benchmark is 
essentially accomplished although both the ASZ and GSZ remain 
under KFOR authority.

b. KLA has been demilitarized and transformed in compliance with the 
        undertaking

    The KLA ceased to exist on September 20, 1999. Many former 
KLA members entered the Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC), now a 
civil emergency response force, or the Kosovo Police Service 
(KPS). This benchmark is essentially accomplished.

c. Establishment of the KPC and low incidence of officer non-compliance

    The KPC was created in 1999 out of demobilized KLA troops. 
UNMIK Regulation 1999/8 authorized the KPC to engage in 
disaster response, search and rescue, and infrastructure 
rebuilding activities. The KPC is permitted no role in law 
enforcement, security, or defense. KFOR and UNMIK jointly 
supervise the KPC. Authorized strength is 5,000 members; by the 
end of 2002 just under 2,000 had moved from active to reserve 
status. Ten percent of the KPC positions are reserved for 
ethnic minorities, although to date only some 100 Serbs and 
other minorities have joined. In 2002 UNMIK budgeted 11.16 
million for KPC salaries, operating expenses, and capital 
outlays. The United States has funded additional training for 
first aid, land navigation, fire fighting, and other 
activities. A goal of the United States and UNMIK for 2003 is 
to further reform the KPC through functional and structural 
changes.
    One of the primary purposes for the establishment of the 
KPC was to provide transparency to the process of 
demilitarizing the KLA. While some individual members of the 
KPC are involved in supporting extremism and organized crime, 
since the KPC was established, documented non-compliance has 
declined from 35 incidents per month to as few as 4 per month, 
to include such incidents as illegal possession of weapons and 
ammunition and celebratory gunfire. Though additional work 
remains to be done to further professionalize the KPC as a 
civilian organization and broaden its ethnic and gender base, 
this benchmark is essentially accomplished.

d. FRY and Kosovars participate in the Joint Implementation Commission

    The Joint Implementation Commission (JIC) was established 
in accordance with the MTA and given two key mandates: ensure 
compliance with the MTA; and demilitarize the KLA. JICs have 
been established at two echelons--at KFOR Headquarters and at 
each of the five Multinational Brigades (MNBs). Meetings 
between KFOR, Yugoslav Army (VJ), FRY Ministry of Interior 
Police (MUP), UNMIK CIVPOL, FRY JIC, International Committee 
for the Red Cross and Border Police occur on a regular basis. 
Agendas range from administrative issues such as ID cards to 
security issues such as VJ/MUP manned contact points on/near 
the administrative boundary. The JICs have facilitated training 
for the KPC in first aid, fire fighting, land navigation, 
identification of unexploded ordnance, construction, and 
humanitarian relief. This benchmark is essentially 
accomplished.

e. End of offensive activities by armed groups

    Large armed groups are no longer active in Kosovo proper, 
but ethnic Albanian armed groups (EAAGs) in southern Serbia and 
in Macedonia have used Kosovo as a supply route and base for 
recruiting and fundraising. KFOR and UNMIK police have been 
active in apprehending members of these groups and their 
supporters, and the United States Government has repeatedly 
reminded Kosovo's political leaders and the KPC that any 
support for the insurgents' activities is notacceptable. This 
benchmark is essentially accomplished although it requires continued 
monitoring.

2. Task: Public security

            Objectives:
    <bullet> Establishment and maintenance of a secure 
environment for the operation of UNMIK, the delivery of 
humanitarian aid, and the safe return of a considerably 
increased number of refugees and displaced persons to their 
homes in 2003.
    <bullet> Ensure protection and freedom of movement for 
KFOR, UNMIK, and other International Organizations (IOs).
    <bullet> Transfer responsibility for public safety and 
order when either UNMIK or newly elected Kosovar authorities 
can take responsibility for this function.
    Significant progress has been achieved toward the 
benchmarks related to these objectives, but continued progress 
in the area of public security will require a strong continued 
commitment by the international community to provide resources 
for rule of law and other security programs.
            Benchmarks:

a. UNMIK safely conducts its mission

    UNMIK has regional administrations in each KFOR MNB, headed 
by an international administrator and staffed by a mixture of 
international and local staff. Additionally, there are UNMIK 
offices in each of Kosovo's 30 municipalities. UNMIK success 
stories include promulgation of the Constitutional Framework, 
holding of municipal elections twice and province-wide 
elections once, registration of and distribution of ID cards to 
nearly one million Kosovars, and issuance of over 345,000 
travel documents recognized in 29 countries. In all UNMIK 
endeavors (except North Mitrovica)--from travel to governance--
UNMIK has been able to safely conduct its mission.

b. IOs travel without disruption of their activities

    Travel in Kosovo by IOs is generally unimpeded. Serb 
residents in northern Kosovo sporadically established 
roadblocks in Serb majority areas, but alternative routes were 
available to IOs with little or no disruption of their 
activities. This benchmark is essentially accomplished.

C. Humanitarian relief delivered

    Humanitarian relief was one of the original UNMIK pillars, 
led by the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), but as 
humanitarian needs abated, the UNMIK humanitarian pillar ceased 
operations in June 2000. UNMIK has institutionalized the 
delivery of goods and services to Kosovo's neediest populations 
through a system of Centers for Social Work. These centers 
ensure poor, isolated and/or minority communities have the 
goods and services they require. This benchmark is essentially 
accomplished.

d. Initial demining efforts accomplished and responsibility transferred 
        to requisite civilian authorities

    Since June 1999, over 20,000 mines, 13,000 items of 
unexploded ordnance (OXO), and 6,700 cluster bomb units (CBU) 
have been located and destroyed. Over 25 million square meters 
of land have been cleared and returned to use. There have been 
16 different international demining organizations involved in 
mine awareness activities; and mine awareness has been 
incorporated into the Kosovo school system curriculum. While 
KFOR's mandate is concerned only with minefields that impede 
its mission, KFOR soldiers continue to mark newly discovered 
minefields for demining by accredited civilian agencies. Also, 

Pages: 1 2 Next >>

Other Popular 108th Congressional Documents Documents:

1 H.Doc.108-92 EMERGENCY REGARDING PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION ...
2 H.Doc.108-41 EMERGENCY REGARDING PROLIFERATION ...
3 H.Doc.108-104 PLAN COLOMBIA/ANDEAN COUNTERDRUG INITIATIVE SEMI-ANNUAL OBLIGATION ...
4 H.Doc.108-214 BLOCKING PROPERTY OF CERTAIN PERSONS AND PROHIBITING THE IMPORTATION OF ...
5 H.Doc.108-166 TO MODIFY DUTY-FREE TREATMENT UNDER THE GENERALIZED SYSTEM OF ...
6 H.Doc.108-50 A REPORT IN CONNECTION WITH PRESIDENTIAL DETERMINATION UNDER PUBLIC ...
7 H.Doc.108-138 CONTINUATION OF THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY WITH RESPECT TO PROLIFERATION OF ...
8 T.Doc.108-20 ADDITIONAL INVESTMENT PROTOCOL WITH THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA ...
9 T.Doc.108-23 EXTRADITION TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN ...
10 H.Doc.108-32 REORGANIZATION PLAN MODIFICATION FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND ...
11 H.Doc.108-118 CONTINUATION OF THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY ...
12 H.Doc.108-129 REPORT ON THE STATUS OF UNITED STATES EFFORTS IN THE GLOBAL WAR ON ...
13 H.Doc.108-95 THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ...
14 H.Doc.108-13 CONTINUATION OF LIBYA EMERGENCY ...
15 H.Doc.108-126 A REQUEST FOR 2004 SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ...
16 H.Doc.108-172 NOTIFICATION TO ENTER INTO A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WITH THE KINGDOM OF ...
17 H.Doc.108-58 AMENDMENTS TO THE FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE ...
18 H.Doc.108-159 NOTIFICATION TO ENTER INTO A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WITH THE GOVERNMENTS ...
19 H.Doc.108-193 NOTIFICATION TO ENTER INTO A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WITH THE GOVERNMENT ...
20 H.Doc.108-90 NOTIFICATION OF REQUIRED CHANGES TO THE UNITED STATES-CHILE FREE TRADE ...
21 H.Doc.108-81 CONTINUATION OF WAIVER UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 WITH RESPECT TO THE ...
22 H.Doc.108-149 REPORT ON THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY ...
23 H.Doc.108-147 CONTINUATION OF THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY ...
24 H.Doc.108-175 REPORT ON THE STATUS OF UNITED STATES EFFORTS IN THE GLOBAL WAR ON ...
25 H.Doc.108-115 PERIODIC REPORT ON THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY WITH RESPECT TO SIERRA LEONE ...
26 H.Doc.108-117 PERIODIC REPORT ON THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY WITH RESPECT TO IRAQ ...
27 H.Doc.108-209 REQUESTS FOR FY 2004 BUDGET AMENDMENTS ...
28 H.Doc.108-102 FY 2003 APPROPRIATION LAW CHANGE AND FY 2004 BUDGET AMENDMENT ...
29 H.Doc.108-79 PERIODIC REPORT ON THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY CAUSED BY THE LAPSE OF THE ...
30 H.Doc.108-31 PERIODIC REPORT ON THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY WITH RESPECT TO IRAQ ...


Other Documents:

108th Congressional Documents Records and Documents

GovRecords.org presents information on various agencies of the United States Government. Even though all information is believed to be credible and accurate, no guarantees are made on the complete accuracy of our government records archive. Care should be taken to verify the information presented by responsible parties. Please see our reference page for congressional, presidential, and judicial branch contact information. GovRecords.org values visitor privacy. Please see the privacy page for more information.
House Rules:

104th House Rules
105th House Rules
106th House Rules

Congressional Bills:

104th Congressional Bills
105th Congressional Bills
106th Congressional Bills
107th Congressional Bills
108th Congressional Bills

Supreme Court Decisions

Supreme Court Decisions

Additional

1995 Privacy Act Documents
1997 Privacy Act Documents
1994 Unified Agenda
2004 Unified Agenda

Congressional Documents:

104th Congressional Documents
105th Congressional Documents
106th Congressional Documents
107th Congressional Documents
108th Congressional Documents

Congressional Directory:

105th Congressional Directory
106th Congressional Directory
107th Congressional Directory
108th Congressional Directory

Public Laws:

104th Congressional Public Laws
105th Congressional Public Laws
106th Congressional Public Laws
107th Congressional Public Laws
108th Congressional Public Laws

Presidential Records

1994 Presidential Documents
1995 Presidential Documents
1996 Presidential Documents
1997 Presidential Documents
1998 Presidential Documents
1999 Presidential Documents
2000 Presidential Documents
2001 Presidential Documents
2002 Presidential Documents
2003 Presidential Documents
2004 Presidential Documents

Home Executive Judicial Legislative Additional Reference About Privacy