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H.Doc.108-86 PERIODIC REPORT ON THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY WITH RESPECT TO THE WESTERN ...
108th Congress, 1st Session - - - - - - - - - - - - - House Document 108-85 A REPORT CONSISTENT WITH THE AUTHORIZATION FOR USE OF MILITARY FORCE AGAINST IRAQ RESOLUTION __________ COMMUNICATION from THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES transmitting A REPORT INCLUDING MATTERS RELATING TO POST-LIBERATION IRAQ AS CONSISTENT WITH THE AUTHORIZATION FOR USE OF MILITARY FORCE AGAINST IRAQ RESOLUTION OF 2002 (PUBLIC LAW 107-243) <GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT> June 16, 2003.--Referred to the Committee on International Relations and ordered to be printed The White House, Washington, June 13, 2003. Hon. J. Dennis Hastert, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Washington, DC. Dear Mr. Speaker: Consistent with the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002 (Public Law 107-243), the Authorization for the Use of Force Against Iraq Resolution (Public Law 102-1), and in order to keep the Congress fully informed, I am providing a report prepared by my Administration. This report includes matters relating to post- liberation Iraq under section 7 of the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-338). Sincerely, George W. Bush. REPORT TO CONGRESS Submitted Consistent With PL 107-243: ``Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002'', June 13, 2003 I. Executive Summary This report covers approximately the period from April 1, 2003 to June 4, 2003. During this period, the United States-led Coalition removed Saddam Hussein and his regime from power, liberating Iraq from tyranny. The Coalition, in coordination with international and nongovernmental organizations, acted quickly to provide humanitarian relief to the Iraqi people, began the task of rebuilding Iraq's government, and began the process of rebuilding a country that had been isolated, oppressed and mismanaged for decades under Ba'ath rule. On May 9, 2003, the United States, United Kingdom and Spain introduced a United Nations Security Council Resolution, subsequently adopted on May 22, to lift the sanctions burden on the Iraqi people, define the U.N.'s vital role in Iraq's reconstruction, and encourage the support of the international community. Relief and reconstruction efforts are summarized in section II. Democracy building and governance issues are described in section III. Military operations are covered in section IV. II. Relief and Reconstruction A. MISSION AND ORGANIZATION The American people have made a significant investment to liberate Iraq, and stand ready to contribute to the rebuilding efforts. Our policy goals for the recovery of Iraq are to: <bullet> Establish a secure environment for the Iraqi people and the conduct of relief and recovery activities; <bullet> Demonstrate rapid improvement in the lives of the Iraqi people; <bullet> Maximize contributions from other countries and organizations; and <bullet> Prepare the Iraqis for self-government. The Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA) was established on January 20, 2003. Its mission was to administer Iraq for a limited period of time, with the objective of the immediate stabilization of post-heavy combat Iraq. A Defense Department effort under the direction of Jay Garner, ORHA was organized around three core functions: humanitarian assistance, reconstruction, and civil administration. Originally, ORHA was under the operational control of Commander, U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM). On May 6, President Bush announced the appointment of Ambassador L. Paul Bremer III, as Presidential Envoy to Iraq. He reports to the President through the Secretary of Defense. The President authorized Ambassador Bremer to oversee, direct, and coordinate all United States Government (USG) programs and activities in Iraq, except those under the command of the Commander, U.S. Central Command. This responsibility includes overseeing the use of USG appropriations in Iraq, as well as Iraqi state- or regime-owned property that is properly under U.S. possession and made available for use in Iraq to assist the Iraqi people and support the recovery of Iraq. The Secretary of Defense appointed Ambassador Bremer as the Administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) on May 13, 2003. As Administrator of the CPA, Ambassador Bremer is responsible for the temporary governance of Iraq, and shall oversee, direct and coordinate all executive, legislative, and judicial functions necessary to carry out this responsibility, including humanitarian relief and reconstruction and assisting in the formation of an Iraqi interim administration. The Secretary of Defense stated in his memorandum of May 13 that the Commander, U.S. Central Command, acting as Commander of Coalition Forces, shall directly support the CPA by deterring hostilities; maintaining Iraq's territorial integrity and security; searching for, securing and destroying weapons of mass destruction; and assisting in carrying out U.S. policy generally. Subsequent to Ambassador Bremer's appointment as Administrator of the CPA, ORHA has been dissolved and the CPA has assumed its functions and responsibilities. The staff of the CPA includes personnel from all relevant U.S. agencies and departments, as well as representatives from Coalition countries. The CPA has been establishing lines of coordination with U.N. specialized agencies and other international institutions, our Coalition partners, bilateral donors, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The CPA's mission is to help meet Iraq's reconstruction, governmental, and administrative challenges, acting as the nucleus of Iraq's administrative apparatus; involving the Iraqi people in administering their own country; and maximizing contributions from other governments and organizations. A key U.S. priority has been the re-establishment of civilian public services to effect improvements in the lives of the Iraqi people. To this end, the CPA has worked closely with USCENTCOM to re-establish security in Iraq and to provide basic water, sanitation, and electric power services for the Iraqi people. To the extent possible, the CPA's civil administration of Iraq seeks to rely on existing Iraqi ministries and infrastructure under CPA direction. The CPA is focused on getting Iraqi ministries up and running. To facilitate this work, emergency payments have been disbursed to Iraqi civil servants, and actions have been taken to effect the re- establishment of regular salary payments and schedules for all approved Iraqi civil servants. The ultimate goal for the United States will be to support a process leading to an internationally recognized, representative government of Iraq. At the same time, the CPA has initiated a program to remove all Iraqi officials who had been senior members of the Ba'ath party. This process continues, along with efforts to identify and train, as needed, acceptable non-Ba'athist officials to manage the various ministries. B. HUMANITARIAN RELIEF The State Department's Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) has allocated an additional $39.9 million for pre-positioning and for international organizations (IOs) to meet early response requirements, including $21 million to the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), $10 million to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), $3 million to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), $2.63 million to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), and $3 million for other IOs and NGOs. Additional funds are in the pipeline. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has also provided contributions to U.N. agencies, including $13 million to UNICEF for emergency health, nutrition, and water/sanitation activities; $60 million to the World Food Program for food and logistics and $375 million worth of commodities; and $1.2 million to the U.N.'s Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) for NGO and donor coordination. Support to NGOs totals over $25 million for a variety of relief activities. On March 28, 2003, after substantial negotiation, the United Nations Security Council adopted U.N. Security Council Resolution 1472. This resolution, cosponsored by the United States in recognition of the potential humanitarian crisis in Iraq, extended the Oil for Food (OFF) Program for 45 days with certain modifications. On May 22, 2003, the U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 1483, which, among other provisions: recognizes the U.S. and U.K. roles under unified (U.S.) command; notes specifically the CPA's role in Iraq, as described in the U.S./ U.K. letter to the President of the Security Council of May 8, 2003; encourages international involvement in the reconstruction effort in Iraq; calls on States to help meet the humanitarian needs of Iraq, including reconstruction and rehabilitation of Iraq's economic infrastructure; defines the U.N.'s role; calls on the Secretary General to appoint a Special Representative for Iraq and describes the role the Special Representative will play; lifts sanctions and specifically permits the sale of oil and the deposit of sales proceeds into the Development Fund for Iraq, with disbursements from the Fund at the direction of the CPA; leaves in place sanctions on arms, except as they pertain to the CPA; winds down the Oil for Food (OFF) Program; gives the Secretary General an additional 6 months to ensure the delivery of priority civilian goods under approved contracts; provides for the transfer of $1 billion in unallocated funds from the OFF escrow account to the Development Fund for Iraq to be used for the benefit of the Iraqi people; provides for restoration of $400 million of frozen Iraqi assets that was originally used to capitalize the OFF program; supports formation of an Iraqi Interim Administration (IIA), which will be a transitional administration run by Iraqis until an internationally recognized representative government is established in Iraq and assumes the responsibilities of the CPA; welcomes the readiness of creditors, including those of the Paris Club, to seek a solution to Iraq's sovereign debt problems; notes establishment of the Development Fund for Iraq, with disbursements at the direction of the CPA, in consultation with the IIA, to be used in a transparent manner to meet the humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people, for the economic reconstruction and repair of Iraq's infrastructure, the continued disarmament of Iraq, the costs of Iraqi civilian administration, and for other purposes benefiting the people of Iraq, and with proceeds from, among other sources, oil sales, returned regime assets, and $1 billion in unallocated proceeds from the OFF escrow account. The Development Fund for Iraq has already been established. On May 28, 2003, $1 billion was transferred into the account by the U.N. as contemplated in Resolution 1483. The Development Fund for Iraq will be financed from multiple Iraqi sources including oil revenues and blocked Iraqi assets held in foreign banks. We are working with the United Nations, the World Bank, other international organizations and governments on an informal preparatory meeting to discuss Iraq requirements and appropriate funding mechanisms. The U.N., other international institutions, and the United States and its coalition partners continue to urge all nations to contribute to humanitarian relief and recovery in Iraq in any way they can. Offers of assistance from the international community exceed $1.9 billion. About $700 million of this has been in response to the U.N. Flash Appeal to meet urgent requirements in Iraq. We are also discussing a formal donors conference this summer. C. RECONSTRUCTION Concurrent with ongoing stability and security efforts, the process of rebuilding Iraq has begun in earnest. Among the early successes are the following: <bullet> Emergency payments have been made to over $1,500,000 Iraqi civil servants to facilitate their return to work and put much-needed cash into the hands of the Iraqi people. The funds to make these payments came from blocked Iraqi assets that had been vested by the United States, and made available for humanitarian assistance and reconstruction purposes in Iraq. <bullet> More than $300,000 has been invested in rebuilding and start-up costs for Iraqi ministries. More than $1,250,000 is planned for ministry telecommunications in the near future. <bullet> The CPA has requested more than $12 million to implement a Humanitarian Mine Action plan. <bullet> 10,000 Iraqi police officers have returned to their jobs, and some of Iraq's criminal courts have resumed legal proceedings. <bullet> Several railway links with Baghdad have been restored, and the CPA is working to restore commercial air links with Baghdad and Basra. Efforts to revitalize the port of Umm Qasr have begun. The restoration of these vital commercial links and resumption of operations will benefit Iraq's economic recovery. <bullet> Iraqi primary schools reopened on May 4th, and secondary schools re-opened on May 10th. Preparations are being made to resume university instruction in time to ensure students are able to graduate as scheduled. Universities have elected new deans and other officials. USAID worked with UNICEF and NGOs to provide new textbooks, with apolitical content, and other school materials. <bullet> The CPA has invested more than $500,000 of vested assets in supplies and equipment for public services, including schools and hospitals. Iraqi cities have seen an improvement in thequality of water. Waste treatment has begun to improve, and electricity output is increasing to meet demand. <bullet> Shipments of oil and Liquid Propane Gas (LPG) are coming in from Kuwait and Turkey to refineries in Basra, Baghdad, and Bajii. We are also progressing towards bringing domestic fuel production up to 400,000 barrels per day to meet domestic demand. <bullet> More than 12,000 workers have already returned to work in the oil sector, many under interim pay arrangements facilitated by the Coalition. United States and U.K. personnel have been working to restore port, rail, and airport facilities throughout Iraq. Restoring these facilities is a key prerequisite to expanding Iraqi trade and economic activity. United States and U.K. military engineers are directing a project to dredge the waterway leading to the port of Umm Qasr, which will allow large cargo ships including those carrying humanitarian cargos such as grain to reach the port. Railways are being repaired throughout the port and major cities in Iraq. United States military personnel and contractors under CPA supervision are working to restore commercial and civilian air service at Baghdad International Airport, restoring the runways, taxiways,
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