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H.R. 4284 (eh) To authorize the Government of India to establish a memorial to honor Mahatma Gandhi in the District of Columbia. ...
Union Calendar No. 404 105th CONGRESS 2d Session H. R. 4283 [Report No. 105-681, Part I] _______________________________________________________________________ A BILL To support sustainable and broad-based agricultural and rural development in sub-Saharan Africa, and for other purposes. _______________________________________________________________________ September 11, 1998 Committee on Agriculture discharged; committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed Union Calendar No. 404 105th CONGRESS 2d Session H. R. 4283 [Report No. 105-681, Part I] To support sustainable and broad-based agricultural and rural development in sub-Saharan Africa, and for other purposes. _______________________________________________________________________ IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES July 21, 1998 Mr. Bereuter (for himself, Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Gilman, Mr. Leach, Mr. Hall of Ohio, Mr. Kanjorski, Mr. Walsh, Mrs. Clayton, Mr. Ehlers, Ms. Waters, Mr. Sanders, Mr. Rodriguez, Mr. Scott, Mr. Dicks, Mr. Moran of Virginia, Mr. Towns, Ms. Carson, Mr. Abercrombie, Ms. Norton, Mr. Snyder, Mr. Lipinski, Ms. Slaughter, Mr. Sabo, Mr. Lewis of Georgia, Mr. Wexler, Ms. Furse, Mrs. Capps, Ms. Brown of Florida, Mr. Hinchey, Mr. Bentsen, Mr. Ackerman, Mr. Gejdenson, Mr. McHale, Mr. Brown of Ohio, Mr. Engel, Mr. Sherman, Mr. Rothman, Mr. Menendez, Mr. Lantos, Mr. Chabot, Mr. Cummings, Mr. Goodling, Mrs. Morella, Mr. Berman, Mr. Horn, Mr. Metcalf, Mr. Allen, Mr. Petri, Mr. Porter, Mr. Dixon, Mrs. Maloney of New York, Mr. Stark, Mr. Oxley, Ms. Millender-McDonald, Mr. Hinojosa, Ms. Stabenow, Ms. Christian-Green, Mr. Davis of Illinois, Ms. Kilpatrick, Ms. McKinney, Mr. Watt of North Carolina, and Mr. Barrett of Nebraska) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on International Relations, and in addition to the Committee on Agriculture, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned August 6, 1998 Reported from the Committee on International Relations August 6, 1998 Referral to the Committee on Agriculture extended for a period ending not later than September 11, 1998 September 11, 1998 Additional sponsors: Mr. Yates, Mr. Portman, Mr. Markey, Mr. McGovern, Ms. Hooley of Oregon, Mr. Barrett of Wisconsin, Mr. Bonior, Mr. Campbell, Mr. Stupak, Mr. Wolf, Ms. Eddie Bernice Johnson of Texas, Mr. Oberstar, Mr. Davis of Virginia, Ms. McCarthy of Missouri, Mr. Farr of California, Mr. Payne, Mr. Hilliard, Mrs. Meek of Florida, Mr. Lampson, Mr. Waxman, Mr. Boehlert, Ms. Rivers, Mr. Thompson, Mr. McNulty, Mr. Kennedy of Massachusetts, Mr. Sawyer, Mr. Coyne, Mr. Dooley of California, Mr. Franks of New Jersey, Mr. Fattah, Mr. Levin, Mr. Nadler, Mr. Wynn, Mr. Bishop, Mr. Ford, Mr. Clay, Ms. Lee, Mr. Hyde, Mr. Stokes, Mr. Meeks of New York, and Mr. Clyburn September 11, 1998 Committee on Agriculture discharged; committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed _______________________________________________________________________ A BILL To support sustainable and broad-based agricultural and rural development in sub-Saharan Africa, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS. (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Africa: Seeds of Hope Act of 1998''. (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents is as follows: Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents. Sec. 2. Findings and declaration of policy. TITLE I--ASSISTANCE FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Sec. 101. Africa Food Security Initiative. Sec. 102. Microenterprise assistance. Sec. 103. Support for producer-owned cooperative marketing associations. Sec. 104. Agricultural and rural development activities of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. Sec. 105. Agricultural research and extension activities. TITLE II--WORLDWIDE FOOD ASSISTANCE AND AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS Subtitle A--Nonemergency Food Assistance Programs Sec. 201. Nonemergency food assistance programs. Subtitle B--Bill Emerson Humanitarian International Food Security Trust Act of 1998 Sec. 211. Short title. Sec. 212. Amendments to the Food Security Commodity Reserve Act of 1996. Subtitle C--International Fund for Agricultural Development Sec. 221. Review of the International Fund for Agricultural Development. TITLE III--MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS Sec. 301. Report. SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND DECLARATION OF POLICY. (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following: (1) The economic, security, and humanitarian interests of the United States and the nations of sub-Saharan Africa would be enhanced by sustainable, broad-based public and private sector agricultural and rural development in each of the African nations. The United States should support such development. (2) According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the number of undernourished people in Africa has more than doubled, from approximately 100,000,000 in the late 1960s to 215,000,000 in 1998, and is projected to increase to 265,000,000 by the year 2010. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the term ``under nutrition'' means inadequate consumption of nutrients, often adversely affecting children's physical and mental development, undermining their future as productive and creative members of their communities. (3)(A) Currently, agricultural production in Africa employs about two-thirds of the workforce but produces less than one- fourth of the gross domestic product in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the World Bank Group. (B) Africa's food imports are projected to rise from less than 8,000,000 metric tons in 1990 to more than 25,000,000 metric tons by the year 2020. (4) African women produce up to 80 percent of the total food supply in Africa according to the International Food Policy Research Institute. (5) The most effective way to improve conditions of the poor is to increase the productivity of the agricultural sector. Productivity increases can be fostered by increasing research and education in agriculture and rural development. (6)(A) In November 1996, the World Food Summit set a goal of reducing hunger worldwide by 50 percent by the year 2015 and encouraged national governments to develop domestic food plans and to support international aid efforts. (B) Since then, several agencies of the United Nations, including the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), whose mission is to provide the rural poor and women in the developing world with cost-effective ways of overcoming hunger, poverty, and malnutrition, have undertaken a cooperative initiative on Africa. (7) Although the World Bank Group recently has launched a major initiative to support agricultural and rural development, only 10 percent, or $1,200,000,000, of its total lending to sub-Saharan Africa for fiscal years 1993 to 1997 was devoted to agriculture. (8)(A) The future prosperity of the United States food processing and agricultural sector is increasingly dependent on exports and the liberalization of global trade. (B) Africa represents a huge potential market for United States food and agricultural products. (9)(A) Increased private sector investment in African countries and expanded trade between the United States and Africa can greatly help African countries achieve food self- sufficiency and graduate from dependency on international assistance. (B) Development assistance, technical assistance, and training from bilateral governmental and multilateral entities, as well as nongovernmental organizations and land-grant universities, can facilitate and encourage commercial development in Africa, such as improving rural roads, agricultural research and extension, and providing access to credit and other resources. (10)(A) Several United States private voluntary organizations have demonstrated success in empowering Africans through direct business ownership and helping African agricultural producers more efficiently and directly market their products. (B) Rural business associations, owned and controlled by farmer shareholders, also greatly aid agricultural producers to increase their household incomes. (11)(A) Over a decade ago, the Development Fund for Africa (DFA) was enacted into law ``to help the poor majority of men and women in sub-Saharan Africa to participate in a process of long-term development through economic growth that is equitable, participatory, environmentally sustainable, and self-reliant.''. (B) In recent years, political change and economic recovery in Africa have amplified the importance of this policy objective while generating new opportunities for its advancement. (C) Despite these developments, funding for the Development Fund for Africa has declined from a high of $811,000,000 for 1993 to approximately $635,000,000 for 1997. (12)(A) United States bilateral development and humanitarian assistance to sub-Saharan Africa is approximately one-tenth of 1 percent of the total annual budget of the United States Government. (B) Funding for agricultural development worldwide by the United States Agency for International Development has declined from 36 percent of its total budget in 1988 to 15 percent in 1997. (13) The United States Agency for International Development has initiated an Africa Food Security Initiative in an effort to improve child nutrition and increase agricultural income in Africa. (b) Declaration of Policy.--It is the policy of the United States, consistent with title XII of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, to support governments of sub-Saharan African countries, United States and African nongovernmental organizations, universities, businesses, and international agencies, to help ensure the availability of basic nutrition and economic opportunities for individuals in sub- Saharan Africa, through sustainable agriculture and rural development. TITLE I--ASSISTANCE FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA SEC. 101. AFRICA FOOD SECURITY INITIATIVE. (a) Additional Requirements in Carrying Out the Initiative.--In providing development assistance under the Africa Food Security Initiative, or any comparable or successor program, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development-- (1) shall emphasize programs and projects that improve the food security of infants, young children, school-age children, women and food-insecure households, or that improve the agricultural productivity, incomes, and marketing of the rural poor in Africa; (2) shall solicit and take into consideration the views and needs of intended beneficiaries and program participants during the selection, planning, implementation, and evaluation phases of projects; and (3) shall ensure that programs are designed and conducted in cooperation with African and United States organizations and institutions, such as private and voluntary organizations, cooperatives, land-grant and other appropriate universities, and local producer-owned cooperative marketing and buying associations, that have expertise in addressing the needs of the poor, small-scale farmers, entrepreneurs, and rural workers, including women. (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that, if there is an increase in funding for sub-Saharan programs, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development should proportionately increase resources to the Africa Food Security Initiative, or any comparable or successor program, for fiscal year 2000 and subsequent fiscal years in order to meet the needs of the countries participating in such Initiative. SEC. 102. MICROENTERPRISE ASSISTANCE. (a) Bilateral Assistance.--In providing microenterprise assistance for sub-Saharan Africa, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall, to the extent practicable, use credit and microcredit assistance to improve the capacity and efficiency of agriculture production in sub-Saharan Africa of small- scale farmers and small rural entrepreneurs. In providing assistance, the Administrator should take into consideration the needs of women, and should use the applied research and technical assistance capabilities of United States land-grant universities. (b) Multilateral Assistance.-- (1) In general.--The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall continue to work with other countries, international organizations (including multilateral development institutions), and entities assisting microenterprises and shall develop a comprehensive and
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