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                                                 Union Calendar No. 404


  2d Session

                               H. R. 4283

                      [Report No. 105-681, Part I]


                                 A BILL

     To support sustainable and broad-based agricultural and rural 
       development in sub-Saharan Africa, and for other purposes.


                           September 11, 1998

Committee on Agriculture discharged; committed to the Committee of the 
    Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                                 Union Calendar No. 404
  2d Session
                                H. R. 4283

                      [Report No. 105-681, Part I]

     To support sustainable and broad-based agricultural and rural 
       development in sub-Saharan Africa, and for other purposes.



                             July 21, 1998

  Mr. Bereuter (for himself, Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Gilman, Mr. Leach, Mr. 
 Hall of Ohio, Mr. Kanjorski, Mr. Walsh, Mrs. Clayton, Mr. Ehlers, Ms. 
Waters, Mr. Sanders, Mr. Rodriguez, Mr. Scott, Mr. Dicks, Mr. Moran of 
   Virginia, Mr. Towns, Ms. Carson, Mr. Abercrombie, Ms. Norton, Mr. 
 Snyder, Mr. Lipinski, Ms. Slaughter, Mr. Sabo, Mr. Lewis of Georgia, 
 Mr. Wexler, Ms. Furse, Mrs. Capps, Ms. Brown of Florida, Mr. Hinchey, 
  Mr. Bentsen, Mr. Ackerman, Mr. Gejdenson, Mr. McHale, Mr. Brown of 
 Ohio, Mr. Engel, Mr. Sherman, Mr. Rothman, Mr. Menendez, Mr. Lantos, 
 Mr. Chabot, Mr. Cummings, Mr. Goodling, Mrs. Morella, Mr. Berman, Mr. 
 Horn, Mr. Metcalf, Mr. Allen, Mr. Petri, Mr. Porter, Mr. Dixon, Mrs. 
Maloney of New York, Mr. Stark, Mr. Oxley, Ms. Millender-McDonald, Mr. 
Hinojosa, Ms. Stabenow, Ms. Christian-Green, Mr. Davis of Illinois, Ms. 
 Kilpatrick, Ms. McKinney, Mr. Watt of North Carolina, and Mr. Barrett 
 of Nebraska) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the 
Committee on International Relations, and in addition to the Committee 
   on Agriculture, for a period to be subsequently determined by the 
  Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall 
           within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned

                             August 6, 1998

         Reported from the Committee on International Relations

                             August 6, 1998

 Referral to the Committee on Agriculture extended for a period ending 
                   not later than September 11, 1998

                           September 11, 1998

Additional sponsors: Mr. Yates, Mr. Portman, Mr. Markey, Mr. McGovern, 
    Ms. Hooley of Oregon, Mr. Barrett of Wisconsin, Mr. Bonior, Mr. 
Campbell, Mr. Stupak, Mr. Wolf, Ms. Eddie Bernice Johnson of Texas, Mr. 
Oberstar, Mr. Davis of Virginia, Ms. McCarthy of Missouri, Mr. Farr of 
California, Mr. Payne, Mr. Hilliard, Mrs. Meek of Florida, Mr. Lampson, 
 Mr. Waxman, Mr. Boehlert, Ms. Rivers, Mr. Thompson, Mr. McNulty, Mr. 
    Kennedy of Massachusetts, Mr. Sawyer, Mr. Coyne, Mr. Dooley of 
   California, Mr. Franks of New Jersey, Mr. Fattah, Mr. Levin, Mr. 
 Nadler, Mr. Wynn, Mr. Bishop, Mr. Ford, Mr. Clay, Ms. Lee, Mr. Hyde, 
           Mr. Stokes, Mr. Meeks of New York, and Mr. Clyburn

                           September 11, 1998

Committee on Agriculture discharged; committed to the Committee of the 
    Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed


                                 A BILL

     To support sustainable and broad-based agricultural and rural 
       development in sub-Saharan Africa, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,


    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Africa: Seeds of 
Hope Act of 1998''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents is as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Findings and declaration of policy.

Sec. 101. Africa Food Security Initiative.
Sec. 102. Microenterprise assistance.
Sec. 103. Support for producer-owned cooperative marketing 
Sec. 104. Agricultural and rural development activities of the Overseas 
                            Private Investment Corporation.
Sec. 105. Agricultural research and extension activities.

           Subtitle A--Nonemergency Food Assistance Programs

Sec. 201. Nonemergency food assistance programs.
Subtitle B--Bill Emerson Humanitarian International Food Security Trust 
                              Act of 1998

Sec. 211. Short title.
Sec. 212. Amendments to the Food Security Commodity Reserve Act of 
      Subtitle C--International Fund for Agricultural Development

Sec. 221. Review of the International Fund for Agricultural 

Sec. 301. Report.


    (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
            (1) The economic, security, and humanitarian interests of 
        the United States and the nations of sub-Saharan Africa would 
        be enhanced by sustainable, broad-based public and private 
        sector agricultural and rural development in each of the 
        African nations. The United States should support such 
            (2) According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the 
        number of undernourished people in Africa has more than 
        doubled, from approximately 100,000,000 in the late 1960s to 
        215,000,000 in 1998, and is projected to increase to 
        265,000,000 by the year 2010. According to the Food and 
        Agriculture Organization, the term ``under nutrition'' means 
        inadequate consumption of nutrients, often adversely affecting 
        children's physical and mental development, undermining their 
        future as productive and creative members of their communities.
            (3)(A) Currently, agricultural production in Africa employs 
        about two-thirds of the workforce but produces less than one-
        fourth of the gross domestic product in sub-Saharan Africa, 
        according to the World Bank Group.
            (B) Africa's food imports are projected to rise from less 
        than 8,000,000 metric tons in 1990 to more than 25,000,000 
        metric tons by the year 2020.
            (4) African women produce up to 80 percent of the total 
        food supply in Africa according to the International Food 
        Policy Research Institute.
            (5) The most effective way to improve conditions of the 
        poor is to increase the productivity of the agricultural 
        sector. Productivity increases can be fostered by increasing 
        research and education in agriculture and rural development.
            (6)(A) In November 1996, the World Food Summit set a goal 
        of reducing hunger worldwide by 50 percent by the year 2015 and 
        encouraged national governments to develop domestic food plans 
        and to support international aid efforts.
            (B) Since then, several agencies of the United Nations, 
        including the International Fund for Agricultural Development 
        (IFAD), whose mission is to provide the rural poor and women in 
        the developing world with cost-effective ways of overcoming 
        hunger, poverty, and malnutrition, have undertaken a 
        cooperative initiative on Africa.
            (7) Although the World Bank Group recently has launched a 
        major initiative to support agricultural and rural development, 
        only 10 percent, or $1,200,000,000, of its total lending to 
        sub-Saharan Africa for fiscal years 1993 to 1997 was devoted to 
            (8)(A) The future prosperity of the United States food 
        processing and agricultural sector is increasingly dependent on 
        exports and the liberalization of global trade.
            (B) Africa represents a huge potential market for United 
        States food and agricultural products.
            (9)(A) Increased private sector investment in African 
        countries and expanded trade between the United States and 
        Africa can greatly help African countries achieve food self-
        sufficiency and graduate from dependency on international 
            (B) Development assistance, technical assistance, and 
        training from bilateral governmental and multilateral entities, 
        as well as nongovernmental organizations and land-grant 
        universities, can facilitate and encourage commercial 
        development in Africa, such as improving rural roads, 
        agricultural research and extension, and providing access to 
        credit and other resources.
            (10)(A) Several United States private voluntary 
        organizations have demonstrated success in empowering Africans 
        through direct business ownership and helping African 
        agricultural producers more efficiently and directly market 
        their products.
            (B) Rural business associations, owned and controlled by 
        farmer shareholders, also greatly aid agricultural producers to 
        increase their household incomes.
            (11)(A) Over a decade ago, the Development Fund for Africa 
        (DFA) was enacted into law ``to help the poor majority of men 
        and women in sub-Saharan Africa to participate in a process of 
        long-term development through economic growth that is 
        equitable, participatory, environmentally sustainable, and 
            (B) In recent years, political change and economic recovery 
        in Africa have amplified the importance of this policy 
        objective while generating new opportunities for its 
            (C) Despite these developments, funding for the Development 
        Fund for Africa has declined from a high of $811,000,000 for 
        1993 to approximately $635,000,000 for 1997.
            (12)(A) United States bilateral development and 
        humanitarian assistance to sub-Saharan Africa is approximately 
one-tenth of 1 percent of the total annual budget of the United States 
            (B) Funding for agricultural development worldwide by the 
        United States Agency for International Development has declined 
        from 36 percent of its total budget in 1988 to 15 percent in 
            (13) The United States Agency for International Development 
        has initiated an Africa Food Security Initiative in an effort 
        to improve child nutrition and increase agricultural income in 
    (b) Declaration of Policy.--It is the policy of the United States, 
consistent with title XII of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
1961, to support governments of sub-Saharan African countries, United 
States and African nongovernmental organizations, universities, 
businesses, and international agencies, to help ensure the availability 
of basic nutrition and economic opportunities for individuals in sub-
Saharan Africa, through sustainable agriculture and rural development.



    (a) Additional Requirements in Carrying Out the Initiative.--In 
providing development assistance under the Africa Food Security 
Initiative, or any comparable or successor program, the Administrator 
of the United States Agency for International Development--
            (1) shall emphasize programs and projects that improve the 
        food security of infants, young children, school-age children, 
        women and food-insecure households, or that improve the 
        agricultural productivity, incomes, and marketing of the rural 
        poor in Africa;
            (2) shall solicit and take into consideration the views and 
        needs of intended beneficiaries and program participants during 
        the selection, planning, implementation, and evaluation phases 
        of projects; and
            (3) shall ensure that programs are designed and conducted 
        in cooperation with African and United States organizations and 
        institutions, such as private and voluntary organizations, 
        cooperatives, land-grant and other appropriate universities, 
        and local producer-owned cooperative marketing and buying 
        associations, that have expertise in addressing the needs of 
        the poor, small-scale farmers, entrepreneurs, and rural 
        workers, including women.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that, if there 
is an increase in funding for sub-Saharan programs, the Administrator 
of the United States Agency for International Development should 
proportionately increase resources to the Africa Food Security 
Initiative, or any comparable or successor program, for fiscal year 
2000 and subsequent fiscal years in order to meet the needs of the 
countries participating in such Initiative.


    (a) Bilateral Assistance.--In providing microenterprise assistance 
for sub-Saharan Africa, the Administrator of the United States Agency 
for International Development shall, to the extent practicable, use 
credit and microcredit assistance to improve the capacity and 
efficiency of agriculture production in sub-Saharan Africa of small-
scale farmers and small rural entrepreneurs. In providing assistance, 
the Administrator should take into consideration the needs of women, 
and should use the applied research and technical assistance 
capabilities of United States land-grant universities.
    (b) Multilateral Assistance.--
            (1) In general.--The Administrator of the United States 
        Agency for International Development shall continue to work 
        with other countries, international organizations (including 
        multilateral development institutions), and entities assisting 
        microenterprises and shall develop a comprehensive and 

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