| Home > 106th Congressional Bills > H.R. 5076 (ih) To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to clarify the exemption from tax for small property and casualty insurance companies, and for other purposes. [Introduced in House] ...
H.R. 5076 (ih) To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to clarify the exemption from tax for small property and casualty insurance companies, and for other purposes. [Introduced in House] ...
108th CONGRESS 2d Session H. R. 5075 To encourage successful re-entry of incarcerated persons into the community after release, and for other purposes. _______________________________________________________________________ IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES September 14, 2004 Mr. Conyers (for himself, Mr. Scott of Virginia, and Mr. Rangel) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, and in addition to the Committees on Ways and Means, Education and the Workforce, Financial Services, Energy and Commerce, and Agriculture, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned _______________________________________________________________________ A BILL To encourage successful re-entry of incarcerated persons into the community after release, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS. (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Re-Entry Enhancement Act''. (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as follows: Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents. Sec. 2. Findings. TITLE I--GRANTS TO ENCOURAGE SUCCESSFUL PRISONER RE-ENTRY Sec. 101. Reauthorization of adult and juvenile offender State and local re-entry demonstration projects. Sec. 102. Improved re-entry procedures for Federal prisoners. Sec. 103. Task force on Federal programs and activities relating to reentry of offenders. Sec. 104. Offender re-entry research. Sec. 105. Use of violent offender truth-in-sentencing Grant funding for demonstration project activities. Sec. 106. State and local reentry courts. Sec. 107. Federal Enhanced In-Prison Vocational Assessment and Training Demonstration Project. TITLE II--REMOVING BARRIERS TO RE-ENTRY Sec. 201. Right to vote in Federal elections for nonincarcerated ex- offenders. Sec. 202. Prohibition on unwarranted employment discrimination. Sec. 203. Increase in Federal work opportunity tax credit. Sec. 204. Reform of student financial assistance. Sec. 205. Reform of ``one strike'' mandatory eviction. Sec. 206. Amendment to the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act to remove restriction on amount of funds available for corrections education programs. Sec. 207. Clarification of authority to place prisoner in community corrections. Sec. 208. Denial of tanf and food stamps for felony conviction for welfare fraud. Sec. 209. Reform of provisions that limit family reunification after prison. Sec. 210. State medicaid plan requirement to ensure restoration of coverage for eligible individuals upon release from confinement. Sec. 211. Reform of supervised release. Sec. 212. Grants to study parole violations and revocations. Sec. 213. Residential substance abuse treatment programs. SEC. 2. FINDINGS. Congress finds the following: (1) Over 2,000,000 prisoners are now held in Federal and State prisons and local jails. Nearly 925,000 Americans are convicted of felony offenses in the Nation's courts each year, and some 600,000 are incarcerated as a result. Over 5,600,000 American adults have spent time in a State or Federal prison. If incarceration rates remain unchanged, 6.6 percent of Americans born in 2001 will go to prison at some time during their lifetime. A total of 6,700,000 Americans were under some form of criminal justice supervision by the end of 2002. Over 4,700,000 adult men and women were under Federal, State, or local probation or parole by the end of 2002. Over 650,000 people a year return to their communities following a prison or jail sentence. (2) The successful reintegration of former prisoners is one of the most formidable challenges facing society today. The transition from prison life is inherently difficult, and especially so for individuals who have served a lengthy sentence and received little preparation for life in law- abiding society. A former prisoner may find it difficult to find employment, housing, health care, and public assistance. He or she may be cut off from his or her family and community. (3) As a result of these challenges, nearly two-thirds of released State prisoners are expected to be re-arrested for a felony or serious misdemeanor within three years after release. Such high recidivism rates can be averted through improved prisoner re-entry efforts. (4) In recent years, a number of States and local governments have begun to establish improved systems for reintegrating former prisoners. Under such systems, corrections officials begin to plan for a prisoner's release while he or she is incarcerated and provide a transition to needed services in the community. (5) Successful re-entry protects those who might otherwise be crime victims. It also improves the likelihood that individuals released from prison or juvenile detention facilities can pay fines, fees, restitution, and family support. (6) According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, expenditures on corrections alone increased from $9,000,000,000 in 1982 to $44,000,000,000 in 1997. These figures do not include the cost of arrest and prosecution, nor do they take into account the cost to victims. (7) Incarceration results in profound collateral consequences including, but not limited to, barriers to housing, public assistance, family reunification, employment, and voting rights, which results in public health risks, homelessness, unemployment, and disenfranchisement. All of these negative outcomes contribute to increased recidivism. (8) The high prevalence of infectious disease, substance abuse, and mental health disorders that has been found in incarcerated populations demands that a recovery model of treatment should be used for handling the more than two-thirds of all offenders with such needs. (9) One of the most significant costs of prisoner re-entry is the impact on children, the weakened ties among family members, and destabilized communities. The long-term generational effects of a social structure in which imprisonment is the norm and law-abiding role models are absent are difficult to measure but undoubtedly exist. (10) According to the 2001 national data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 3,500,000 parents were supervised by the correctional system. Prior to incarceration, 64 percent of female prisoners and 44 percent of male prisoners in State facilities lived with their children. (11) Between 1991 and 1999, the number of children with a parent in a Federal or State correctional facility increased by more than 100 percent, from approximately 900,000 to approximately 2,000,000. According to the Bureau of Prisons, there is evidence to suggest that inmates who are connected to their children and families are more likely to avoid negative incidents and have reduced sentences. (12) Approximately 100,000 juveniles (ages 17 and under) leave juvenile correctional facilities, State prison, or Federal prison each year. Juveniles released from confinement still have their likely prime crime years ahead of them. Juveniles released from secure confinement have a recidivism rate ranging from 55 to 75 percent. The chances that young people will successfully transition into society improve with effective re-entry and aftercare programs. (13) Studies have shown that from 15 percent to 27 percent of prisoners expect to go to homeless shelters upon release from prison. (14) The National Institute of Justice has found that after one year of release, up to 60 percent of former inmates are not employed. (15) Fifty-seven percent of Federal and 70 percent of State inmates used drugs regularly before prison, with some estimates of involvement with drugs or alcohol around the time of the offense as high as 84 percent (BJS Trends in State Parole, 1990-2000). (16) According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 60 to 83 percent of the Nation's correctional population have used drugs at some point in their lives. This is twice the estimated drug use of the total United States population of 40 percent. (17) Family-based treatment programs have proven results for serving the special population of female offenders and substance abusers with children. An evaluation by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of family-based treatment for substance abusing mothers and children found that at six months post treatment, 60 percent of the mothers remain alcohol and drug free, and drug related offenses declined from 28 to 7 percent. Additionally, a 2003 evaluation of residential family based treatment programs revealed that 60 percent of mothers remained clean and sober six months after treatment, criminal arrests declined by 43 percent, and 88 percent of the children treated in the program with their mothers remain stabilized. (18) A Bureau of Justice Statistics analysis indicated that only 33 percent of Federal and 36 percent of State inmates had participated in residential inpatient treatment programs for alcohol and drug abuse 12 months before their release. Further, over one-third of all jail inmates have some physical or mental disability and 25 percent of jail inmates have been treated at some time for a mental or emotional problem. (19) According to the National Institute of Literacy, 70 percent of all prisoners function at the two lowest literacy levels. (20) The Bureau of Justice Statistics has found that 27 percent of Federal inmates, 40 percent of State inmates, and 47 percent of local jail inmates have never completed high school or its equivalent. Furthermore, the Bureau of Justice Statistics has found that less educated inmates are more likely to be recidivists. Only 1 in 4 local jails offer basic adult education programs. (21) Participation in State correctional education programs lowers the likelihood of reincarceration by 29 percent, according to a recent United States Department of Education study. A Federal Bureau of Prisons study found a 33 percent drop in recidivism among federal prisoners who participated in vocational and apprenticeship training. TITLE I--GRANTS TO ENCOURAGE SUCCESSFUL PRISONER RE-ENTRY SEC. 101. REAUTHORIZATION OF ADULT AND JUVENILE OFFENDER STATE AND LOCAL RE-ENTRY DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS. (a) Adult and Juvenile Offender Demonstration Projects Authorized.--Section 2976 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3797w) is amended in subsection (b) by striking paragraphs (1) through (4) and inserting the following new paragraphs: ``(1) establishing or improving the system or systems under which-- ``(A) the correctional agency of the State or local government develops and carries out plans to facilitate the re-entry into the community of each offender in State or local custody; ``(B) the supervision and services provided to offenders in State or local custody are coordinated with the supervision and services provided to offenders after re-entry into the community; ``(C) the efforts of various public and private entities to provide supervision and services to offenders after re-entry into the community, and to family members of such offenders, are coordinated; and ``(D) offenders awaiting re-entry into the community are provided with documents (such as identification papers, referrals to services, medical prescriptions, job training certificates, apprenticeship papers, and information on obtaining public assistance) useful in achieving a successful transition from prison; ``(2) carrying out programs and initiatives by units of local government to strengthen re-entry services for individuals released from local jails; ``(3) enabling prison mentors of offenders to remain in contact with those offenders, including through the use of such technology as videoconferencing, during incarceration and after re-entry into the community and encouraging the involvement of prison mentors in the re-entry process; ``(4) providing structured post-release housing and transitional housing, including group homes for recovering substance abusers, through which offenders are provided supervision and services immediately following re-entry into the community; ``(5) assisting offenders in securing permanent housing upon release or following a stay in transitional housing; ``(6) providing continuity of health services (including mental health services, substance abuse treatment and aftercare, and treatment for contagious diseases) to offenders in custody and after re-entry into the community; ``(7) providing offenders with education, job training, English as a second language programs, work experience programs, self-respect and life skills training, and other skills useful in achieving a successful transition from prison; ``(8) facilitating collaboration among corrections and community corrections, technical schools, community colleges, and the workforce development and employment service sectors to-- ``(A) promote, where appropriate, the employment of people released from prison and jail, through efforts such as educating employers about existing financial incentives and facilitate the creation of job opportunities, including transitional jobs, for this population that will benefit communities; ``(B) connect inmates to employment, including supportive employment and employment services, before their release to the community; and ``(C) addressing barriers to employment; ``(9) assessing the literacy and educational needs of offenders in custody and identifying and providing services appropriate to meet those needs, including follow-up assessments and long-term services; ``(10) systems under which family members of offenders are involved in facilitating the successful re-entry of those offenders into the community, including removing obstacles to the maintenance of family relationships while the offender is in custody, strengthening the family's capacity as a stable living situation during re-entry where appropriate, and involving family members in the planning and implementation of
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