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105th Congress                                                 Document
2d Session                                                    No. 105-28
________________________________________________________________________

 
         COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS UNITED STATES SENATE
_________________________________________________________________________


MILLENNIUM

EDITION

1816-2000

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Ordered to be printed with illustrations
October 2000
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE                                   51-737
WASHINGTON : 2000
  

                     COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

                 JESSE HELMS, North Carolina, Chairman

RICHARD G. LUGAR, Indiana            JOSEPH R. BIDEN, Jr., Delaware
CHUCK HAGEL, Nebraska                PAUL S. SARBANES, Maryland
GORDON H. SMITH, Oregon              CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut
ROD GRAMS, Minnesota                 JOHN F. KERRY, Massachusetts
SAM BROWNBACK, Kansas                RUSSELL D. FEINGOLD, Wisconsin
CRAIG THOMAS, Wyoming                PAUL D. WELLSTONE, Minnesota
JOHN ASHCROFT, Missouri              BARBARA BOXER, California
BILL FRIST, Tennessee                ROBERT G. TORRICELLI, New Jersey
LINCOLN D. CHAFEE, Rhode Island

                   Stephen E. Biegun, Staff Director

                 Edwin K. Hall, Minority Staff Director






                         Background Information

                                 on the

                     Committee on Foreign Relations

                                 of the

                          United States Senate







                                     
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            Senator Jesse Helms of North Carolina, Chairman
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               Senator Joseph R. Biden, Jr., of Delaware,
                        Ranking Minority Member
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  United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, First Session, 
                             106th Congress
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                       Dedicated to the memory of

                     Admiral James W. ``Bud'' Nance

                              (1921-1999)

                             Staff Director


                              (1995-1999)


                        Minority Staff Director


                              (1991-1995)


                                <F-dash>

                For titles do not reflect honor on men,
                    but rather men on their titles.
?

                            C O N T E N T S

                              ----------                              
                                                                   Page

Preface..........................................................     1
The Committee on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate...     3
    Origins of the Committee.....................................     4
    Historical Overview..........................................     5
    Membership...................................................    10
          Size...................................................    10
          Election...............................................    11
          Chairman...............................................    12
    Jurisdiction.................................................    13
          Sequential Referrals...................................    15
          Joint Referrals........................................    15
          Simultaneous Referrals.................................    17
          Informal Methods.......................................    18
          Intelligence Activities................................    18
          Transfers of Jurisdiction..............................    19
    Committee Powers and Responsibilities........................    19
          War Powers.............................................    20
          Treaties and Other International Agreements............    20
              (1) Treaties.......................................    20
                  Conditions and Stipulations....................    21
                  Procedure......................................    23
              (2) Other International Agreements.................    25
          Nominations............................................    26
          Bills and Resolutions..................................    30
          Legislative Oversight Activities.......................    33
          Interparliamentary Activities..........................    37
    Committee Procedure..........................................    39
          Rules of the Committee on Foreign Relations............    39
          Meetings and Hearings..................................    53
    Subcommittees................................................    55
          Standing Subcommittees.................................    55
          Study or Oversight Subcommittees.......................    59
          Ad Hoc Subcommittees...................................    60
    Staff........................................................    61
    Finances.....................................................    65

                               Appendices

  I. Alphabetical list of members of the Committee on Foreign Relatio71
 II. Composition of the Committee on Foreign Relations by Congresses.78
III. Chairmen of the Committee on Foreign Relations.................105
 IV. Staff Directors of the Committee on Foreign Relations..........109
  V. Excerpts from the Standing Rules of the Senate (Committee 
     Procedure).....................................................110
 VI. Selected Bibliography prepared by Congressional Research Service, 
     Library of Congress............................................119
VII. Authorizing Resolution, S. Res. 310............................129
                                PREFACE

                    By Senator Jesse Helms, Chairman

                                  and

         Senator Joseph R. Biden, Jr., Ranking Minority Member

                     Committee on Foreign Relations

    From the beginning of the Republic, the process of foreign 
policy formulation in the United States has been unique. For 
most nations, the role of the legislative branch in foreign 
policy is limited to providing a rubber-stamp on the policies 
of the executive. The United States is different. The United 
States Constitution requires the President to seek the Senate's 
``advice and consent'' in the ratification of treaties and the 
approval of ambassadorial nominees. It is an arrangement that 
gives the Senate, and the Committee on Foreign Relations in 
particular, an essential role in the formulation of foreign 
policy.
    Since its founding on December 10, 1816, the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations has been at the center of 
foreign policy in America. Six Presidents of the United States 
have served on the Committee: Andrew Jackson, James Buchanan, 
Andrew Johnson, Benjamin Harrison, Warren Harding and John F. 
Kennedy. The Committee has also produced 19 Secretaries of 
State and the names of many of its Chairmen--Arthur Vandenberg, 
Henry Cabot Lodge, William Fulbright--are embossed in the great 
foreign policy debates of this Nation.
    While nearly 200 years have passed since its founding, many 
of the debates within the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
surprisingly, remain the same. In responding to international 
opportunities and challenges, the Committee must deliberate 
between conflict or diplomacy, engagement or isolationism, 
assistance or sanctions, and weigh every option in between. The 
Committee also considers treaties, the authorization of 
appropriations for international affairs, and nominations.
    In the latter half of the twentieth century, new issues vie 
for the Committee's attention. The proliferation of deadly 
weapons and technology, peacekeeping in regional and ethnic 
conflicts, the appropriate role of multilateral institutions, 
international terrorism, trafficking of illegal drugs, and the 
balance between international trade and U.S. moral and national 
security interests are critical issues in today's world. In an 
effort to make available to the public this discussion of 
foreign affairs by Members of the Senate, the Committee 
continues to publish transcripts of hearings held on these and 
other topics, and has produced a historical series based on 
heretofore classified sessions since 1947. These documents 
highlight the contribution of Congress to American foreign 
policy.
    A background document on the Committee was first published 
in 1966 in conjunction with the Committee's 150th anniversary. 
This document, now in its seventh edition, serves as a source 
of information on the Committee's procedures, membership, 
jurisdiction and other matters. It is our hope that this 
revised edition will serve as a useful introduction to the work 
of the Committee.
                   The Committee on Foreign Relations
                      of the United States Senate
    The Constitution of the United States divides 
responsibility for the conduct of American foreign policy 
between the President and Congress, and assigns to the Senate 
specific approval over treaties and nominations. The powers of 
Congress concerning foreign relations are derived from the 
following articles:

      The Constitution of the United States of America (Excerpts)

                               Article I
          Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted 
        shall be vested in a Congress of the United States 
        which shall consist of a Senate and House of 
        Representatives. * * *
          Section 8. The Congress shall have Power * * * To 
        regulate Commerce with foreign Nations * * * To define 
        and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high 
        Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations; To 
        declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and 
        make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water. * * * 
        To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper 
        for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and 
        all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the 
        Government of the United States, or in any Department 
        or Officer thereof. * * *
          Section 9. * * * No Money shall be drawn from the 
        Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by 
        Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the 
        Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be 
        published from time to time. No Title of Nobility shall 
        be granted by the United States: And no Person holding 
        any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, 
        without the Consent of Congress, accept any present, 
        Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from 
        any King, Prince, or foreign State.
          Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, 
        Alliance, or Confederation; * * *

                               Article II
          Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a 
        President of the United States of America. * * *
          Section 2. * * * He shall have Power, by and with the 
        Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, 
        provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and 
        he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and 
        Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other 
        public Ministers and Consuls, * * *.

                        Origins of the Committee
    During its early years the Senate was a small body that met 
often as a committee of the whole. It lacked standing 
committees, except for three which handled routine housekeeping 
duties. When specific issues arose, the Senate appointed ad hoc 
committees to examine them. One source estimates that there 
were ``over 200 separate committees dealing with foreign 
affairs between 1789 and 1816.'' \1\ The titles of these ad hoc 
committees varied, and not until 1812 did the term ``foreign 
relations'' appear in the legislative journals.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ James W. Gould, ``The Origins of the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee,'' Western Political Quarterly, XII (September, 1959).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In the first session of the First Congress, President 
George Washington appeared in person before the Senate to seek 
its advice and consent on the terms of a treaty being 
negotiated with the Southern Indians. Unwilling to debate the 
issue or cast a vote in the presence of the President, Senator 
Robert Morris of Pennsylvania moved that the question be 
referred to an ad hoc committee. According to Senator William 
Maclay, after he had seconded the motion, ``the President of 
the United States started up with a violent fret. `This defeats 
every purpose of my coming here' were the first words that he 
said.'' Consideration was postponed for two days when the 
Senate resumed discussion and voted on the questions at hand, 
again with Washington present. This was the President's last 
attempt to participate in Senate deliberations, and thereafter 
presidential communications were generally delivered by written 
message.
    Although the Senate continued to name numerous committees 
each session, certain Senators gained reputations in particular 
fields and were repeatedly named to committees dealing with 

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