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Pub.L. 106-310 To amend the Public Health Service Act with respect to children's health. <> ...
MICROENTERPRISE FOR SELF-RELIANCE AND INTERNATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION ACT
[[Page 114 STAT. 1078]]
Public Law 106-309
To establish a program to provide assistance for programs of credit and
other financial services for microenterprises in developing countries,
and for other
purposes. <<NOTE: Oct. 17, 2000 - [H.R. 1143]>>
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress <<NOTE: Microenterprise for Self-
Reliance and International Anti-Corruption Act of 2000.>> assembled,
SECTION 1. <<NOTE: 22 USC 2151 note.>> SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the ``Microenterprise for Self-Reliance and
International Anti-Corruption Act of 2000''.
SEC. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
The table of contents for this Act is as follows:
Sec. 1. Short title.
Sec. 2. Table of contents.
TITLE I--MICROENTERPRISE FOR SELF-RELIANCE ACT OF 2000
Sec. 101. Short title.
Sec. 102. Findings and declarations of policy.
Sec. 103. Purposes.
Sec. 104. Definitions.
Sec. 105. Microenterprise development grant assistance.
Sec. 106. Micro- and small enterprise development credits.
Sec. 107. United States Microfinance Loan Facility.
Sec. 108. Report relating to future development of microenterprise
Sec. 109. United States Agency for International Development as global
leader and coordinator of bilateral and multilateral
Sec. 110. Sense of the Congress on consideration of Mexico as a key
priority in microenterprise funding allocations.
TITLE II--INTERNATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION AND GOOD GOVERNANCE ACT OF 2000
Sec. 201. Short title.
Sec. 202. Findings and purpose.
Sec. 203. Development assistance policy.
Sec. 204. Department of the Treasury technical assistance program for
Sec. 205. Authorization of good governance programs.
TITLE III--INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC OPPORTUNITY ACT OF 2000
Sec. 301. Short title.
Sec. 302. Statement of purpose.
Sec. 303. Establishment of grant program for foreign study by American
college students of limited financial means.
Sec. 304. Report to Congress.
Sec. 305. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 306. Effective date.
TITLE IV--MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Sec. 401. Support for Overseas Cooperative Development Act.
Sec. 402. Funding of certain environmental assistance activities of
[[Page 114 STAT. 1079]]
Sec. 403. Processing of applications for transportation of humanitarian
assistance abroad by the Department of Defense.
Sec. 404. Working capital fund.
Sec. 405. Increase in authorized number of employees and representatives
of the United States mission to the United Nations provided
living quarters in New York.
Sec. 406. Availability of VOA and Radio Marti multilingual computer
readable text and voice recordings.
Sec. 407. Availability of certain materials of the Voice of America.
Sec. 408. Paul D. Coverdell Fellows Program Act of 2000.
TITLE <<NOTE: Microenterprise for Self-Reliance Act of 2000.>> I--
MICROENTERPRISE FOR SELF-RELIANCE ACT OF 2000
SEC. 101. <<NOTE: 22 USC 2151 note.>> SHORT TITLE.
This title may be cited as the ``Microenterprise for Self-Reliance
Act of 2000''.
SEC. 102. <<NOTE: 22 USC 2151f note.>> FINDINGS AND DECLARATIONS OF
Congress makes the following findings and declarations:
(1) According to the World Bank, more than 1,200,000,000
people in the developing world, or one-fifth of the world's
population, subsist on less than $1 a day.
(2) Over 32,000 of their children die each day from largely
preventable malnutrition and disease.
(3)(A) Women in poverty generally have larger work loads and
less access to educational and economic opportunities than their
(B) Directly aiding the poorest of the poor, especially
women, in the developing world has a positive effect not only on
family incomes, but also on child nutrition, health and
education, as women in particular reinvest income in their
(4)(A) The poor in the developing world, particularly women,
generally lack stable employment and social safety nets.
(B) Many turn to self-employment to generate a substantial
portion of their livelihood. In Africa, over 80 percent of
employment is generated in the informal sector of the self-
(C) These poor entrepreneurs are often trapped in poverty
because they cannot obtain credit at reasonable rates to build
their asset base or expand their otherwise viable self-
(D) Many of the poor are forced to pay interest rates as
high as 10 percent per day to money lenders.
(5)(A) The poor are able to expand their incomes and their
businesses dramatically when they can access loans at reasonable
(B) Through the development of self-sustaining microfinance
programs, poor people themselves can lead the fight against
hunger and poverty.
(6)(A) On February 2-4, 1997, a global Microcredit Summit
was held in Washington, District of Columbia, to launch a plan
to expand access to credit for self-employment and other
financial and business services to 100,000,000 of the world's
poorest families, especially the women of those families, by
2005. While this scale of outreach may not be achievable in
[[Page 114 STAT. 1080]]
this short time-period, the realization of this goal could
dramatically alter the face of global poverty.
(B) With an average family size of five, achieving this goal
will mean that the benefits of microfinance will thereby reach
nearly half of the world's more than 1,000,000,000 absolute poor
(7)(A) Nongovernmental organizations, such as those that
comprise the Microenterprise Coalition (such as the Grameen Bank
(Bangladesh), K-REP (Kenya), and networks such as Accion
International, the Foundation for International Community
Assistance (FINCA), and the credit union movement) are
successful in lending directly to the very poor.
(B) Microfinance institutions such as BRAC (Bangladesh),
BancoSol (Bolivia), SEWA Bank (India), and ACEP (Senegal) are
regulated financial institutions that can raise funds directly
from the local and international capital markets.
(8)(A) Microenterprise institutions not only reduce poverty,
but also reduce the dependency on foreign assistance.
(B) Interest income on the credit portfolio is used to pay
recurring institutional costs, assuring the long-term
sustainability of development assistance.
(9) Microfinance institutions leverage foreign assistance
resources because loans are recycled, generating new benefits to
(10)(A) The development of sustainable microfinance
institutions that provide credit and training, and mobilize
domestic savings, is a critical component to a global strategy
of poverty reduction and broad-based economic development.
(B) In the efforts of the United States to lead the
development of a new global financial architecture,
microenterprise should play a vital role. The recent shocks to
international financial markets demonstrate how the financial
sector can shape the destiny of nations. Microfinance can serve
as a powerful tool for building a more inclusive financial
sector which serves the broad majority of the world's population
including the very poor and women and thus generate more social
stability and prosperity.
(C) Over the last two decades, the United States has been a
global leader in promoting the global microenterprise sector,
primarily through its development assistance programs at the
United States Agency for International Development.
Additionally, the Department of the Treasury and the Department
of State have used their authority to promote microenterprise in
the development programs of international financial institutions
and the United Nations.
(11)(A) In 1994, the United States Agency for International
Development launched the ``Microenterprise Initiative'' in
partnership with the Congress.
(B) The initiative committed to expanding funding for the
microenterprise programs of the Agency, and set a goal that, by
the end of fiscal year 1996, one-half of all microenterprise
resources would support programs and institutions that provide
credit to the poorest, with loans under $300.
(C) In order to achieve the goal of the microcredit summit,
increased investment in microfinance institutions serving the
poorest will be critical.
[[Page 114 STAT. 1081]]
(12) Providing the United States share of the global
investment needed to achieve the goal of the microcredit summit
will require only a small increase in United States funding for
international microcredit programs, with an increased focus on
institutions serving the poorest.
(13)(A) In order to reach tens of millions of the poorest
with microcredit, it is crucial to expand and replicate
successful microfinance institutions.
(B) These institutions need assistance in developing their
institutional capacity to expand their services and tap
commercial sources of capital.
(14) Nongovernmental organizations have demonstrated
competence in developing networks of local microfinance
institutions and other assistance delivery mechanisms so that
they reach large numbers of the very poor, and achieve financial
(15) Recognizing that the United States Agency for
International Development has developed very effective
partnerships with nongovernmental organizations, and that the
Agency will have fewer missions overseas to carry out its work,
the Agency should place priority on investing in those
nongovernmental network institutions that meet performance
criteria through the central funding mechanisms of the Agency.
(16) By expanding and replicating successful microfinance
institutions, it should be possible to create a global
infrastructure to provide financial services to the world's
(17)(A) The United States can provide leadership to other
bilateral and multilateral development agencies as such agencies
expand their support to the microenterprise sector.
(B) The United States should seek to improve coordination
among G-7 countries in the support of the microenterprise sector
in order to leverage the investment of the United States with
that of other donor nations.
(18) Through increased support for microenterprise,
especially credit for the poorest, the United States can
continue to play a leadership role in the global effort to
expand financial services and opportunity to 100,000,000 of the
poorest families on the planet.
SEC. 103. <<NOTE: 22 USC 2151f note.>> PURPOSES.
The purposes of this title are--
(1) to make microenterprise development an important element
of United States foreign economic policy and assistance;
(2) to provide for the continuation and expansion of the
commitment of the United States Agency for International
Development to the development of microenterprise institutions
as outlined in its 1994 Microenterprise Initiative;
(3) to support and develop the capacity of United States and
indigenous nongovernmental organization intermediaries to
provide credit, savings, training, technical assistance, and
business development services to microentrepreneurs;
(4) to emphasize financial services and substantially
increase the amount of assistance devoted to both financial
services and complementary business development services
designed to reach the poorest people in developing countries,
particularly women; and
[[Page 114 STAT. 1082]]
(5) to encourage the United States Agency for International
Development to coordinate microfinance policy, in consultation
with the Department of the Treasury and the Department of State,
and to provide global leadership among bilateral and
multilateral donors in promoting microenterprise for the poorest
of the poor.
SEC. 104. <<NOTE: 22 USC 2151f note.>> DEFINITIONS.
In this title:
(1) Business development services.--The term ``business
development services'' means support for the growth of
microenterprises through training, technical assistance,
marketing assistance, improved production technologies, and
(2) Microenterprise institution.--The term ``microenterprise
institution'' means an institution that provides services,
including microfinance, training, or business development
services, for microentrepreneurs.
(3) Microfinance institution.--The term ``microfinance
institution'' means an institution that directly provides, or
works to expand, the availability of credit, savings, and other
financial services to microentrepreneurs.
(4) Practitioner institution.--The term ``practitioner
institution'' means any institution that provides services,
including microfinance, training, or business development
services, for microentrepreneurs, or provides assistance to
SEC. 105. MICROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT GRANT ASSISTANCE.
Chapter 1 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C.
2151 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following new section:
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