Home > 106th Congressional Bills > S. 2046 (rs) To reauthorize the Next Generation Internet Act, and for other purposes. [Reported in Senate] ...

S. 2046 (rs) To reauthorize the Next Generation Internet Act, and for other purposes. [Reported in Senate] ...


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106th CONGRESS
  2d Session
                                S. 2046


_______________________________________________________________________


                    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                           September 22, 2000

Referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committee 
     on Commerce, the Committee on Resources and the Committee on 
Agriculture, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, 
 in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the 
                jurisdiction of the committee concerned

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 AN ACT


 
    To reauthorize the Next Generation Internet Act, and for other 
                               purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Federal Research Investment Act''.

                  TITLE I--FEDERAL RESEARCH INVESTMENT

SEC. 101. GENERAL FINDINGS REGARDING FEDERAL INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH.

    (a) Value of Research and Development.--The Congress makes the 
following findings with respect to the value of research and 
development to the United States:
            (1) Federal investment in research has resulted in the 
        development of technology that has saved lives in the United 
        States and around the world.
            (2) The research and development investment across all 
        Federal agencies has been effective in creating technology that 
        has enhanced the American quality of life.
            (3) The Federal investment in research and development 
        conducted or underwritten by both military and civilian 
        agencies has produced benefits that have been felt in both the 
        private and public sector.
            (4) Discoveries across the spectrum of scientific inquiry 
        have the potential to raise the standard of living and the 
        quality of life for all Americans.
            (5) Science, engineering, and technology play a critical 
        role in shaping the modern world.
            (6) Studies show that about half of all United States post-
        World War II economic growth is a direct result of technical 
        innovation; science, engineering, and technology contribute to 
        the creation of new goods and services, new jobs and new 
        capital.
            (7) Technical innovation is the principal driving force 
        behind the long-term economic growth and increased standards of 
        living of the world's modern industrial societies. Other 
        nations are well aware of the pivotal role of science, 
        engineering, and technology, and they are seeking to exploit it 
        wherever possible to advance their own global competitiveness.
            (8) Federal programs for investment in research, which lead 
        to technological innovation and result in economic growth, 
        should be structured to address current funding disparities and 
        develop enhanced capability in States and regions that 
        currently are underrepresented in the national science and 
        technology enterprise.
    (b) Status of the Federal Investment.--The Congress makes the 
following findings with respect to the status of the Federal investment 
in research and development activities:
            (1) Civilian research and development expenditures reached 
        their pinnacle in the mid-1960s due to the Apollo Space 
        program, declining for several years thereafter. Despite 
        significant growth in the late 1980s and early 1990s, these 
        expenditures, in constant dollars, have not returned to the 
        levels of the 1960s.
            (2) Fiscal realities now challenge Congress and the 
        President to steer the Federal Government's role in science, 
        engineering, and technology in a manner that ensures a prudent 
        use of limited public resources. There is both a long-term 
        problem--addressing the ever-increasing level of mandatory 
        spending--and a near-term challenge--apportioning a dwindling 
        amount of discretionary funding to an increasing range of 
        targets in science, engineering, and technology. This 
        confluence of increased national dependency on technology, 
        increased targets of opportunity, and decreased fiscal 
        flexibility has created a problem of national urgency. Many 
        indicators show that more funding for science, engineering, and 
        technology is needed but, even with increased funding, 
        priorities must be established among different programs. The 
        United States cannot afford the luxury of fully funding all 
        deserving programs.

SEC. 102. SPECIAL FINDINGS REGARDING HEALTH-RELATED RESEARCH.

    The Congress makes the following findings with respect to health-
related research:
            (1) Health and economic benefits provided by health-related 
        research.--Because of health-related research, cures for many 
        debilitating and fatal diseases have been discovered and 
        deployed. At present, the medical research community is on the 
        cusp of creating cures for a number of leading diseases and 
        their associated burdens. In particular, medical research has 
        the potential to develop treatments that can help manage the 
        escalating costs associated with the aging of the United States 
        population.
            (2) Funding of health-related research.--Many studies have 
        recognized that clinical and basic science are in a state of 
        crisis because of a failure of resources to meet the 
        opportunity. Consequently, health-related research has emerged 
        as a national priority and has been given significantly 
        increased funding by Congress in both fiscal year 1999 and 
        fiscal year 2000. In order to continue addressing this urgent 
        national need, the pattern of substantial budgetary expansion 
        begun in fiscal year 1999 should be maintained.
            (3) Interdisciplinary nature of health-related research.--
        Because all fields of science and engineering are 
        interdependent, full realization of the Nation's historic 
        investment in health will depend on major advances both in the 
        biomedical sciences and in other science and engineering 
        disciplines. Hence, the vitality of all disciplines must be 
        preserved, even as special considerations are given to the 
        health research field.

SEC. 103. ADDITIONAL FINDINGS REGARDING THE LINK BETWEEN RESEARCH AND 
              TECHNOLOGY.

    The Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) Flow of science, engineering, and technology.--The 
        process of science, engineering, and technology involves many 
        steps. The present Federal science, engineering, and technology 
        structure reinforces the increasingly artificial distinctions 
        between basic and applied activities. The result too often is a 
        set of discrete programs that each support a narrow phase of 
        research or development and are not coordinated with one 
        another. The Government should maximize its investment by 
        encouraging the progression of science, engineering, and 
        technology from the earliest stages of research up to a pre-
        commercialization stage, through funding agencies and vehicles 
        appropriate for each stage. This creates a flow of technology, 
        subject to merit review at each stage, so that promising 
        technology is not lost in a bureaucratic maze.
            (2) Excellence in american university research 
        infrastructure.--Federal investment in science, engineering, 
        and technology programs must foster a close relationship 
        between research and education. Investment in research at the 
        university level creates more than simply world-class research. 
        It creates world-class researchers as well. The Federal 
        strategy must continue to reflect this commitment to a strong 
        geographically-diverse research infrastructure. Furthermore, 
        the United States must find ways to extend the excellence of 
        its university system to primary and secondary educational 
        institutions and to better utilize the community college system 
        to prepare many students for vocational opportunities in an 
        increasingly technical workplace.
            (3) Commitment to a broad range of research initiatives.--
        An increasingly common theme in many recent technical 
        breakthroughs has been the importance of revolutionary 
        innovations that were sparked by overlapping of research 
        disciplines. The United States must continue to encourage this 
        trend by providing and encouraging opportunities for 
        interdisciplinary projects that foster collaboration among 
        fields of research.
            (4) Partnerships among industry, universities, and federal 
        laboratories.--Each of these contributors to the national 
        science and technology delivery system has special talents and 
        abilities that complement the others. In addition, each has a 
        central mission that must provide their focus and each has 
        limited resources. The Nation's investment in science, 
        engineering, and technology can be optimized by seeking 
        opportunities for leveraging the resources and talents of these 
        three major players through partnerships that do not distort 
        the missions of each partner. For that reason, Federal dollars 
        are wisely spent forming such partnerships.

SEC. 104. MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RESEARCH EFFORT; GUIDING PRINCIPLES.

    (a) Maintaining United States Leadership in Science, Engineering, 
and Technology.--It is imperative for the United States to nurture its 
superb resources in science, engineering, and technology carefully in 
order to maintain its own globally competitive position.
    (b) Guiding Principles.--Federal research and development programs 
should be conducted in accordance with the following guiding 
principles:
            (1) Good science.--Federal science, engineering, and 
        technology programs include both knowledge-driven science 
        together with its applications, and mission-driven, science-
        based requirements. In general, both types of programs must be 
        focused, peer- and merit-reviewed, and not unnecessarily 
        duplicative, although the details of these attributes must vary 
        with different program objectives.
            (2) Fiscal accountability.--The Congress must exercise 
        oversight to ensure that programs funded with scarce Federal 
        dollars are well managed. The United States cannot tolerate 
        waste of money through inefficient management techniques, 
        whether by Government agencies, by contractors, or by Congress 
        itself. Fiscal resources would be better utilized if program 
        and project funding levels were predictable across several 
        years to enable better project planning; a benefit of such 
        predictability would be that agencies and Congress can better 
        exercise oversight responsibilities through comparisons of a 
        project's and program's progress against carefully planned 
        milestones and international benchmarks.
            (3) Program effectiveness.--The United States needs to make 
        sure that Government programs achieve their goals. As the 
        Congress crafts science, engineering, and technology 
        legislation, it must include a process for gauging program 
        effectiveness, selecting criteria based on sound scientific 
        judgment and avoiding unnecessary bureaucracy. The Congress 
        should also avoid the trap of measuring the effectiveness of a 
        broad science, engineering, and technology program by passing 
        judgment on individual projects. Lastly, the Congress must 
        recognize that a negative result in a well-conceived and 
        executed project or program may still be critically important 
        to the funding agency.
            (4) Criteria for Government funding.--Program selection for 
        Federal funding should continue to reflect the Nation's 2 
        traditional research and development priorities: (A) basic, 
        scientific, and technological research that represents 
        investments in the Nation's long-term future scientific and 
        technological capacity, for which Government has traditionally 
        served as the principal resource; and (B) mission research 
        investments, that is, investments in research that derive from 
        necessary public functions, such as defense, health, education, 
        environmental protection, all of which may also raise the 
        standard of living, which may include pre-commercial, pre-
        competitive engineering research and technology development. 
        Additionally, Government funding should not compete with or 
        displace the short-term, market-driven, and typically more 
        specific nature of private-sector funding. Government funding 
        should be restricted to pre-competitive activities, leaving 
        competitive activities solely for the private sector. As a 
        rule, the Government should not invest in commercial technology 
        that is in the product development stage, very close to the 
        broad commercial marketplace, except to meet a specific agency 
        goal. When the Government provides funding for any science, 
        engineering, and technology investment program, it must take 
        reasonable steps to ensure that the potential benefits derived 
        from the program will accrue broadly.

SEC. 105. POLICY STATEMENT.

    (a) Policy.--This title is intended to--
            (1) assure a doubling of the base level of Federal funding 
        for basic scientific, biomedical, and pre-competitive 
        engineering research, achieved by steadily increasing the 
        annual funding of civilian research and development programs so 
        that the total annual investment equals 10 percent of the 
        Federal Government's discretionary budget by fiscal year 2011;
            (2) invest in the future economic growth of the United 
        States by expanding the research activities referred to in 
        paragraph (1);
            (3) enhance the quality of life and health for all people 
        of the United States through expanded support for health-
        related research;
            (4) allow for accelerated growth of individual agencies to 
        meet critical national needs;
            (5) guarantee the leadership of the United States in 
        science, engineering, medicine, and technology;
            (6) ensure that the opportunity and the support for 
        undertaking good science is widely available throughout the 
        United States by supporting a geographically-diverse research 
        and development enterprise; and
            (7) continue aggressive Congressional oversight and annual 
        budgetary authorization of the individual agencies listed in 
        subsection (b).
    (b) Agencies Covered.--The agencies and trust instrumentality 
intended to be covered to the extent that they are engaged in science, 
engineering, and technology activities for basic scientific, medical, 
or pre-competitive engineering research by this title are--
            (1) the National Institutes of Health, within the 
        Department of Health and Human Services;
            (2) the National Science Foundation;
            (3) the National Institute for Standards and Technology, 
        within the Department of Commerce;
            (4) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration;
            (5) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 
        within the Department of Commerce;
            (6) the Centers for Disease Control, within the Department 
        of Health and Human Services;
            (7) the Department of Energy (to the extent that it is not 
        engaged in defense-related activities);
            (8) the Department of Agriculture;
            (9) the Department of Transportation;
            (10) the Department of the Interior;
            (11) the Department of Veterans Affairs;
            (12) the Smithsonian Institution;

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