| Home > 106th Congressional Bills > S. 2046 (rs) To reauthorize the Next Generation Internet Act, and for other purposes. [Reported in Senate] ...
S. 2046 (rs) To reauthorize the Next Generation Internet Act, and for other purposes. [Reported in Senate] ...
106th CONGRESS 2d Session S. 2046 _______________________________________________________________________ IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES September 22, 2000 Referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committee on Commerce, the Committee on Resources and the Committee on Agriculture, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned _______________________________________________________________________ AN ACT To reauthorize the Next Generation Internet Act, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the ``Federal Research Investment Act''. TITLE I--FEDERAL RESEARCH INVESTMENT SEC. 101. GENERAL FINDINGS REGARDING FEDERAL INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH. (a) Value of Research and Development.--The Congress makes the following findings with respect to the value of research and development to the United States: (1) Federal investment in research has resulted in the development of technology that has saved lives in the United States and around the world. (2) The research and development investment across all Federal agencies has been effective in creating technology that has enhanced the American quality of life. (3) The Federal investment in research and development conducted or underwritten by both military and civilian agencies has produced benefits that have been felt in both the private and public sector. (4) Discoveries across the spectrum of scientific inquiry have the potential to raise the standard of living and the quality of life for all Americans. (5) Science, engineering, and technology play a critical role in shaping the modern world. (6) Studies show that about half of all United States post- World War II economic growth is a direct result of technical innovation; science, engineering, and technology contribute to the creation of new goods and services, new jobs and new capital. (7) Technical innovation is the principal driving force behind the long-term economic growth and increased standards of living of the world's modern industrial societies. Other nations are well aware of the pivotal role of science, engineering, and technology, and they are seeking to exploit it wherever possible to advance their own global competitiveness. (8) Federal programs for investment in research, which lead to technological innovation and result in economic growth, should be structured to address current funding disparities and develop enhanced capability in States and regions that currently are underrepresented in the national science and technology enterprise. (b) Status of the Federal Investment.--The Congress makes the following findings with respect to the status of the Federal investment in research and development activities: (1) Civilian research and development expenditures reached their pinnacle in the mid-1960s due to the Apollo Space program, declining for several years thereafter. Despite significant growth in the late 1980s and early 1990s, these expenditures, in constant dollars, have not returned to the levels of the 1960s. (2) Fiscal realities now challenge Congress and the President to steer the Federal Government's role in science, engineering, and technology in a manner that ensures a prudent use of limited public resources. There is both a long-term problem--addressing the ever-increasing level of mandatory spending--and a near-term challenge--apportioning a dwindling amount of discretionary funding to an increasing range of targets in science, engineering, and technology. This confluence of increased national dependency on technology, increased targets of opportunity, and decreased fiscal flexibility has created a problem of national urgency. Many indicators show that more funding for science, engineering, and technology is needed but, even with increased funding, priorities must be established among different programs. The United States cannot afford the luxury of fully funding all deserving programs. SEC. 102. SPECIAL FINDINGS REGARDING HEALTH-RELATED RESEARCH. The Congress makes the following findings with respect to health- related research: (1) Health and economic benefits provided by health-related research.--Because of health-related research, cures for many debilitating and fatal diseases have been discovered and deployed. At present, the medical research community is on the cusp of creating cures for a number of leading diseases and their associated burdens. In particular, medical research has the potential to develop treatments that can help manage the escalating costs associated with the aging of the United States population. (2) Funding of health-related research.--Many studies have recognized that clinical and basic science are in a state of crisis because of a failure of resources to meet the opportunity. Consequently, health-related research has emerged as a national priority and has been given significantly increased funding by Congress in both fiscal year 1999 and fiscal year 2000. In order to continue addressing this urgent national need, the pattern of substantial budgetary expansion begun in fiscal year 1999 should be maintained. (3) Interdisciplinary nature of health-related research.-- Because all fields of science and engineering are interdependent, full realization of the Nation's historic investment in health will depend on major advances both in the biomedical sciences and in other science and engineering disciplines. Hence, the vitality of all disciplines must be preserved, even as special considerations are given to the health research field. SEC. 103. ADDITIONAL FINDINGS REGARDING THE LINK BETWEEN RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY. The Congress makes the following findings: (1) Flow of science, engineering, and technology.--The process of science, engineering, and technology involves many steps. The present Federal science, engineering, and technology structure reinforces the increasingly artificial distinctions between basic and applied activities. The result too often is a set of discrete programs that each support a narrow phase of research or development and are not coordinated with one another. The Government should maximize its investment by encouraging the progression of science, engineering, and technology from the earliest stages of research up to a pre- commercialization stage, through funding agencies and vehicles appropriate for each stage. This creates a flow of technology, subject to merit review at each stage, so that promising technology is not lost in a bureaucratic maze. (2) Excellence in american university research infrastructure.--Federal investment in science, engineering, and technology programs must foster a close relationship between research and education. Investment in research at the university level creates more than simply world-class research. It creates world-class researchers as well. The Federal strategy must continue to reflect this commitment to a strong geographically-diverse research infrastructure. Furthermore, the United States must find ways to extend the excellence of its university system to primary and secondary educational institutions and to better utilize the community college system to prepare many students for vocational opportunities in an increasingly technical workplace. (3) Commitment to a broad range of research initiatives.-- An increasingly common theme in many recent technical breakthroughs has been the importance of revolutionary innovations that were sparked by overlapping of research disciplines. The United States must continue to encourage this trend by providing and encouraging opportunities for interdisciplinary projects that foster collaboration among fields of research. (4) Partnerships among industry, universities, and federal laboratories.--Each of these contributors to the national science and technology delivery system has special talents and abilities that complement the others. In addition, each has a central mission that must provide their focus and each has limited resources. The Nation's investment in science, engineering, and technology can be optimized by seeking opportunities for leveraging the resources and talents of these three major players through partnerships that do not distort the missions of each partner. For that reason, Federal dollars are wisely spent forming such partnerships. SEC. 104. MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RESEARCH EFFORT; GUIDING PRINCIPLES. (a) Maintaining United States Leadership in Science, Engineering, and Technology.--It is imperative for the United States to nurture its superb resources in science, engineering, and technology carefully in order to maintain its own globally competitive position. (b) Guiding Principles.--Federal research and development programs should be conducted in accordance with the following guiding principles: (1) Good science.--Federal science, engineering, and technology programs include both knowledge-driven science together with its applications, and mission-driven, science- based requirements. In general, both types of programs must be focused, peer- and merit-reviewed, and not unnecessarily duplicative, although the details of these attributes must vary with different program objectives. (2) Fiscal accountability.--The Congress must exercise oversight to ensure that programs funded with scarce Federal dollars are well managed. The United States cannot tolerate waste of money through inefficient management techniques, whether by Government agencies, by contractors, or by Congress itself. Fiscal resources would be better utilized if program and project funding levels were predictable across several years to enable better project planning; a benefit of such predictability would be that agencies and Congress can better exercise oversight responsibilities through comparisons of a project's and program's progress against carefully planned milestones and international benchmarks. (3) Program effectiveness.--The United States needs to make sure that Government programs achieve their goals. As the Congress crafts science, engineering, and technology legislation, it must include a process for gauging program effectiveness, selecting criteria based on sound scientific judgment and avoiding unnecessary bureaucracy. The Congress should also avoid the trap of measuring the effectiveness of a broad science, engineering, and technology program by passing judgment on individual projects. Lastly, the Congress must recognize that a negative result in a well-conceived and executed project or program may still be critically important to the funding agency. (4) Criteria for Government funding.--Program selection for Federal funding should continue to reflect the Nation's 2 traditional research and development priorities: (A) basic, scientific, and technological research that represents investments in the Nation's long-term future scientific and technological capacity, for which Government has traditionally served as the principal resource; and (B) mission research investments, that is, investments in research that derive from necessary public functions, such as defense, health, education, environmental protection, all of which may also raise the standard of living, which may include pre-commercial, pre- competitive engineering research and technology development. Additionally, Government funding should not compete with or displace the short-term, market-driven, and typically more specific nature of private-sector funding. Government funding should be restricted to pre-competitive activities, leaving competitive activities solely for the private sector. As a rule, the Government should not invest in commercial technology that is in the product development stage, very close to the broad commercial marketplace, except to meet a specific agency goal. When the Government provides funding for any science, engineering, and technology investment program, it must take reasonable steps to ensure that the potential benefits derived from the program will accrue broadly. SEC. 105. POLICY STATEMENT. (a) Policy.--This title is intended to-- (1) assure a doubling of the base level of Federal funding for basic scientific, biomedical, and pre-competitive engineering research, achieved by steadily increasing the annual funding of civilian research and development programs so that the total annual investment equals 10 percent of the Federal Government's discretionary budget by fiscal year 2011; (2) invest in the future economic growth of the United States by expanding the research activities referred to in paragraph (1); (3) enhance the quality of life and health for all people of the United States through expanded support for health- related research; (4) allow for accelerated growth of individual agencies to meet critical national needs; (5) guarantee the leadership of the United States in science, engineering, medicine, and technology; (6) ensure that the opportunity and the support for undertaking good science is widely available throughout the United States by supporting a geographically-diverse research and development enterprise; and (7) continue aggressive Congressional oversight and annual budgetary authorization of the individual agencies listed in subsection (b). (b) Agencies Covered.--The agencies and trust instrumentality intended to be covered to the extent that they are engaged in science, engineering, and technology activities for basic scientific, medical, or pre-competitive engineering research by this title are-- (1) the National Institutes of Health, within the Department of Health and Human Services; (2) the National Science Foundation; (3) the National Institute for Standards and Technology, within the Department of Commerce; (4) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; (5) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, within the Department of Commerce; (6) the Centers for Disease Control, within the Department of Health and Human Services; (7) the Department of Energy (to the extent that it is not engaged in defense-related activities); (8) the Department of Agriculture; (9) the Department of Transportation; (10) the Department of the Interior; (11) the Department of Veterans Affairs; (12) the Smithsonian Institution;
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