Home > 106th Congressional Bills > S. 225 (is) To provide Federal housing assistance to Native Hawaiians. [Introduced in Senate] ...

S. 225 (is) To provide Federal housing assistance to Native Hawaiians. [Introduced in Senate] ...


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106th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                 S. 225

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 AN ACT


 
       To provide Federal housing assistance to Native Hawaiians.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Native American Housing Assistance 
and Self-Determination Amendments of 1999''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

    Congress finds that--
            (1) the United States has undertaken a responsibility to 
        promote the general welfare of the United States by--
                    (A) employing its resources to remedy the unsafe 
                and unsanitary housing conditions and the acute 
                shortage of decent, safe, and sanitary dwellings for 
                families of lower income; and
                    (B) developing effective partnerships with 
                governmental and private entities to accomplish the 
                objectives referred to in subparagraph (A);
            (2) the United States has a special responsibility for the 
        welfare of the Native peoples of the United States, including 
        Native Hawaiians;
            (3) pursuant to the provisions of the Hawaiian Homes 
        Commission Act, 1920 (42 Stat. 108 et seq.), the United States 
        set aside 200,000 acres of land in the Federal territory that 
        later became the State of Hawaii in order to establish a 
        homeland for the native people of Hawaii--Native Hawaiians;
            (4) despite the intent of Congress in 1920 to address the 
        housing needs of Native Hawaiians through the enactment of the 
        Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, 1920 (42 Stat. 108 et seq.), 
        Native Hawaiians eligible to reside on the Hawaiian home lands 
        have been foreclosed from participating in Federal housing 
        assistance programs available to all other eligible families in 
        the United States;
            (5) although Federal housing assistance programs have been 
        administered on a racially neutral basis in the State of 
        Hawaii, Native Hawaiians continue to have the greatest unmet 
        need for housing and the highest rates of overcrowding in the 
        United States;
            (6) among the Native American population of the United 
        States, Native Hawaiians experience the highest percentage of 
        housing problems in the United States, as the percentage--
                    (A) of housing problems in the Native Hawaiian 
                population is 49 percent, as compared to--
                            (i) 44 percent for American Indian and 
                        Alaska Native households in Indian country; and
                            (ii) 27 percent for all other households in 
                        the United States; and
                    (B) overcrowding in the Native Hawaiian population 
                is 36 percent as compared to 3 percent for all other 
                households in the United States;
            (7) among the Native Hawaiian population, the needs of 
        Native Hawaiians, as that term is defined in section 801 of the 
        Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act 
        of 1996, as added by section 3 of this Act, eligible to reside 
        on the Hawaiian Home Lands are the most severe, as--
                    (A) the percentage of overcrowding in Native 
                Hawaiian households on the Hawaiian Home Lands is 36 
                percent; and
                    (B) approximately 13,000 Native Hawaiians, which 
                constitute 95 percent of the Native Hawaiians who are 
                eligible to reside on the Hawaiian Home Lands, are in 
                need of housing;
            (8) applying the Department of Housing and Urban 
        Development guidelines--
                    (A) 70.8 percent of Native Hawaiians who either 
                reside or who are eligible to reside on the Hawaiian 
                Home Lands have incomes that fall below the median 
                family income; and
                    (B) 50 percent of Native Hawaiians who either 
                reside or who are eligible to reside on the Hawaiian 
                Home Lands have incomes below 30 percent of the median 
                family income;
            (9) \1/3\ of those Native Hawaiians who are eligible to 
        reside on the Hawaiian Home Lands pay more than 30 percent of 
        their income for shelter, and \1/2\ of those Native Hawaiians 
        face overcrowding;
            (10) the extraordinarily severe housing needs of Native 
        Hawaiians demonstrate that Native Hawaiians who either reside 
        on, or are eligible to reside on, Hawaiian Home Lands have been 
        denied equal access to Federal low-income housing assistance 
        programs available to other qualified residents of the United 
        States, and that a more effective means of addressing their 
        housing needs must be authorized;
            (11) consistent with the recommendations of the National 
        Commission on American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native 
        Hawaiian Housing, and in order to address the continuing 
        prevalence of extraordinarily severe housing needs among Native 
        Hawaiians who either reside or are eligible to reside on the 
        Hawaiian Home Lands, Congress finds it necessary to extend the 
        Federal low-income housing assistance available to American 
        Indians and Alaska Natives under the Native American Housing 
        Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4101 
        et seq.) to those Native Hawaiians;
            (12) under the treatymaking power of the United States, 
        Congress had the constitutional authority to confirm a treaty 
        between the United States and the government that represented 
        the Hawaiian people, and from 1826 until 1893, the United 
        States recognized the independence of the Kingdom of Hawaii, 
        extended full diplomatic recognition to the Hawaiian 
        Government, and entered into treaties and conventions with the 
        Hawaiian monarchs to govern commerce and navigation in 1826, 
        1842, 1849, 1875, and 1887;
            (13) the United States has recognized and reaffirmed that--
                    (A) Native Hawaiians have a cultural, historic, and 
                land-based link to the indigenous people who exercised 
                sovereignty over the Hawaiian Islands, and that group 
                has never relinquished its claims to sovereignty or its 
                sovereign lands;
                    (B) Congress does not extend services to Native 
                Hawaiians because of their race, but because of their 
                unique status as the indigenous people of a once 
                sovereign nation as to whom the United States has 
                established a trust relationship;
                    (C) Congress has also delegated broad authority to 
                administer a portion of the Federal trust 
                responsibility to the State of Hawaii;
                    (D) the political status of Native Hawaiians is 
                comparable to that of American Indians and Alaska 
                Natives; and
                    (E) the aboriginal, indigenous people of the United 
                States have--
                            (i) a continuing right to autonomy in their 
                        internal affairs; and
                            (ii) an ongoing right of self-determination 
                        and self-governance that has never been 
                        extinguished;
            (14) the political relationship between the United States 
        and the Native Hawaiian people has been recognized and 
        reaffirmed by the United States as evidenced by the inclusion 
        of Native Hawaiians in--
                    (A) the Native American Programs Act of 1974 (42 
                U.S.C. 2291 et seq.);
                    (B) the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (42 
                U.S.C. 1996 et seq.);
                    (C) the National Museum of the American Indian Act 
                (20 U.S.C. 80q et seq.);
                    (D) the Native American Graves Protection and 
                Repatriation Act (25 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.);
                    (E) the National Historic Preservation Act (16 
                U.S.C. 470 et seq.);
                    (F) the Native American Languages Act of 1992 (106 
                Stat. 3434);
                    (G) the American Indian, Alaska Native and Native 
                Hawaiian Culture and Arts Development Act (20 U.S.C. 
                4401 et seq.);
                    (H) the Job Training Partnership Act (29 U.S.C. 
                1501 et seq.); and
                    (I) the Older Americans Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 3001 
                et seq.); and
            (15) in the area of housing, the United States has 
        recognized and reaffirmed the political relationship with the 
        Native Hawaiian people through--
                    (A) the enactment of the Hawaiian Homes Commission 
                Act, 1920 (42 Stat. 108 et seq.), which set aside 
                approximately 200,000 acres of public lands that became 
                known as Hawaiian Home Lands in the Territory of Hawaii 
                that had been ceded to the United States for 
                homesteading by Native Hawaiians in order to 
                rehabilitate a landless and dying people;
                    (B) the enactment of the Act entitled ``An Act to 
                provide for the admission of the State of Hawaii into 
                the Union'', approved March 18, 1959 (73 Stat. 4)--
                            (i) by ceding to the State of Hawaii title 
                        to the public lands formerly held by the United 
                        States, and mandating that those lands be held 
                        in public trust, for the betterment of the 
                        conditions of Native Hawaiians, as that term is 
                        defined in section 201 of the Hawaiian Homes 
                        Commission Act, 1920 (42 Stat. 108 et seq.); 
                        and
                            (ii) by transferring the United States 
                        responsibility for the administration of 
                        Hawaiian Home Lands to the State of Hawaii, but 
                        retaining the authority to enforce the trust, 
                        including the exclusive right of the United 
                        States to consent to any actions affecting the 
                        lands which comprise the corpus of the trust 
                        and any amendments to the Hawaiian Homes 
                        Commission Act, 1920 (42 Stat. 108 et seq.), 
                        enacted by the legislature of the State of 
                        Hawaii affecting the rights of beneficiaries 
                        under the Act;
                    (C) the authorization of mortgage loans insured by 
                the Federal Housing Administration for the purchase, 
                construction, or refinancing of homes on Hawaiian Home 
                Lands under the Act of June 27, 1934 (commonly referred 
                to as the ``National Housing Act'' (42 Stat. 1246 et 
                seq., chapter 847; 12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.));
                    (D) authorizing Native Hawaiian representation on 
                the National Commission on American Indian, Alaska 
                Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing under Public Law 
                101-235;
                    (E) the inclusion of Native Hawaiians in the 
                definition under section 3764 of title 38, United 
                States Code, applicable to subchapter V of chapter 37 
                of title 38, United States Code (relating to a housing 
                loan program for Native American veterans); and
                    (F) the enactment of the Hawaiian Home Lands 
                Recovery Act (109 Stat. 357; 48 U.S.C. 491, note prec.) 
                which establishes a process for the conveyance of 
                Federal lands to the Department of Hawaiian Homes Lands 
                that are equivalent in value to lands acquired by the 
                United States from the Hawaiian Home Lands inventory.

SEC. 3. HOUSING ASSISTANCE.

    The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act 
of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4101 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:

         ``TITLE VIII--HOUSING ASSISTANCE FOR NATIVE HAWAIIANS

``SEC. 801. DEFINITIONS.

    ``In this title:
            ``(1) Department of hawaiian home lands; department.--The 
        term `Department of Hawaiian Home Lands' or `Department' means 
        the agency or department of the government of the State of 
        Hawaii that is responsible for the administration of the 
        Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, 1920 (42 Stat. 108 et seq.).
            ``(2) Director.--The term `Director' means the Director of 
        the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands.
            ``(3) Elderly families; near-elderly families.--
                    ``(A) In general.--The term `elderly family' or 
                `near-elderly family' means a family whose head (or his 
                or her spouse), or whose sole member, is--
                            ``(i) for an elderly family, an elderly 
                        person; or
                            ``(ii) for a near-elderly family, a near-
                        elderly person.
                    ``(B) Certain families included.--The term `elderly 
                family' or `near-elderly family' includes--
                            ``(i) 2 or more elderly persons or near-
                        elderly persons, as the case may be, living 
                        together; and
                            ``(ii) 1 or more persons described in 
                        clause (i) living with 1 or more persons 
                        determined under the housing plan to be 
                        essential to their care or well-being.
            ``(4) Hawaiian home lands.--The term `Hawaiian Home Lands' 
        means lands that--
                    ``(A) have the status as Hawaiian home lands under 
                section 204 of the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act (42 
                Stat. 110); or
                    ``(B) are acquired pursuant to that Act.
            ``(5) Housing area.--The term `housing area' means an area 
        of Hawaiian Home Lands with respect to which the Department of 
        Hawaiian Home Lands is authorized to provide assistance for 
        affordable housing under this Act.
            ``(6) Housing entity.--The term `housing entity' means the 
        Department of Hawaiian Home Lands.
            ``(7) Housing plan.--The term `housing plan' means a plan 
        developed by the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands.
            ``(8) Median income.--The term `median income' means, with 
        respect to an area that is a Hawaiian housing area, the greater 
        of--
                    ``(A) the median income for the Hawaiian housing 
                area, which shall be determined by the Secretary; or
                    ``(B) the median income for the State of Hawaii.
            ``(9) Native hawaiian.--The term `Native Hawaiian' means 
        any individual who is--

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