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S. 30 (is) To increase the unified estate and gift tax credit to exempt small businesses and farmers from inheritance taxes. ...


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108th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                 S. 309

 To enable the United States to maintain its leadership in aeronautics 
and aviation by instituting an initiative to develop technologies that 
  will significantly lower noise, emissions, and fuel consumption, to 
 reinvigorate basic and applied research in aeronautics and aviation, 
                        and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                            February 5, 2003

  Mr. Allen (for himself and Mr. Dodd) introduced the following bill; 
    which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, 
                      Science, and Transportation

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
 To enable the United States to maintain its leadership in aeronautics 
and aviation by instituting an initiative to develop technologies that 
  will significantly lower noise, emissions, and fuel consumption, to 
 reinvigorate basic and applied research in aeronautics and aviation, 
                        and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Aeronautics Research and Development 
Revitalization Act of 2003''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

    Congress finds the following:
            (1) It is in the national interest to maintain leadership 
        in aeronautics and aviation.
            (2) The United States is in danger of losing its leadership 
        in aeronautics and aviation to international competitors.
            (3) Past Federal investments in aeronautics research and 
        development have benefited the economy and national security of 
        the United States and the quality of life of its citizens.
            (4) Future growth in aviation increasingly will be 
        constrained by concerns related to aircraft noise, emissions, 
        fuel consumption, and air transportation system congestion.
            (5) Current and projected levels of Federal investment in 
        aeronautics research and development are not sufficient to 
        address concerns related to the growth of aviation.
            (6) International competitors have recognized the 
        importance of noise, emissions, fuel consumption, and air 
        transportation system congestion in limiting the future growth 
        of aviation and have established aggressive agendas for 
        addressing each of these concerns.
            (7) An aggressive initiative by the Federal Government to 
        develop technologies that would significantly reduce aircraft 
        noise, harmful emissions, and fuel consumption would benefit 
        the United States by--
                    (A) improving the competitiveness of the United 
                States aviation industry through the development of new 
                markets for aviation services and the development of 
                superior aircraft for existing markets;
                    (B) improving the quality of life for our citizens 
                by drastically reducing the level of noise due to 
                aircraft operations;
                    (C) reducing the congestion of the air 
                transportation system by allowing departures and 
                arrivals at currently under utilized airports through 
                the use of environmentally compatible aircraft;
                    (D) reducing the rate at which fossil fuels are 
                consumed;
                    (E) reducing the rate at which greenhouse gases and 
                other harmful gases and particulates are added to the 
                atmosphere by aircraft; and
                    (F) reinvigorating the human capital needed to 
                maintain international leadership in aeronautics and 
                aviation by providing a set of extremely challenging 
                and socially beneficial goals to the next generation of 
                engineers and scientists.
            (8) Long-term progress in aeronautics and aviation will 
        require continued Federal investment in fundamental 
        aeronautical research.
            (9) The European competitors of United States aircraft 
        companies have invested heavily in new wind tunnels. These new 
        tunnels are better than their older United States counterparts 
        and give European aircraft manufacturers an advantage over 
        United States aircraft manufacturers in the highly competitive 
        civil aircraft sales business. As a result, United States 
        aircraft companies are forced to perform tests in Europe's 
        superior wind tunnels. The security of United States data 
        obtained in these and other foreign test facilities can easily 
        be compromised. New and upgraded United States aeronautical 
        test facilities are needed to support a revitalized aeronautics 
        research and development program, and should be a high national 
        priority.
            (10) Continued research is needed into the flight crew and 
        controller training needed to accommodate new aircraft and air 
        transportation system technologies and procedures.
            (11) It is in the interest of the United States to maintain 
        a vigorous capability in basic and applied research and 
        development of technologies related to rotorcraft.
            (12) Maintenance of United States leadership in aeronautics 
        and aviation will require the productive collaboration of NASA, 
        the Department of Defense, the FAA, the aviation industry, and 
        the Nation's universities.
            (13) Improvements to our understanding of convective 
        weather phenomena and of aircraft wake turbulence would 
        significantly improve the performance of the Nation's air 
        transportation system.
            (14) The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, have 
        imposed new requirements for research on aviation security. 
        NASA's aviation safety research must be expanded to include 
        methods that provide for an air transportation system that is 
        both safe and secure from terrorist attacks.
            (15) It is important for NASA to continue at a healthy 
        level its cooperative research efforts with the Department of 
        Defense regarding military aviation technologies. These efforts 
        have been all but eliminated in recent years and must be 
        restored. The Nation must take advantage of the synergy between 
civil and military aviation research.
            (16) The report entitled ``The NASA Aeronautics Blueprint--
        Toward a Bold New Era of Aviation'' provides an excellent 
        statement of the problems facing aviation today, and presents 
        an exciting vision of what can be achieved by investments in 
        aeronautics research and technology. It does not, however, 
        provide a program plan to actually achieve the vision, nor does 
        it address the huge mismatch between current NASA aeronautics 
        funding and what is required to realize the vision.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) FAA.--The term ``FAA'' means the Federal Aviation 
        Administration.
            (2) FAA administrator.--The term ``FAA Administrator'' 
        means the Administrator of the FAA.
            (3) Institution of higher education.--The term 
        ``institution of higher education'' has the meaning given that 
        term by section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 1001).
            (4) NASA.--The term ``NASA'' means the National Aeronautics 
        and Space Administration.
            (5) NASA administrator.--The term ``NASA Administrator'' 
        means the Administrator of NASA.

           TITLE I--NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

SEC. 101. ENVIRONMENTAL AIRCRAFT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE.

    (a) Objective.--Not later than 10 years after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the NASA Administrator shall develop and demonstrate, in a 
relevant environment, technologies that result in the following 
commercial aircraft performance characteristics:
            (1) Noise.--Noise levels on takeoff and on airport approach 
        and landing that do not exceed ambient noise levels in the 
        absence of flight operations in the vicinity of airports from 
        which such commercial aircraft would normally operate.
            (2) Fuel efficiency.--A 10 percent improvement in fuel 
        efficiency, compared to aircraft in commercial service as of 
        the date of enactment of this Act, in each of the following:
                    (A) Specific fuel consumption.
                    (B) Lift to drag ratio.
                    (C) Structural weight fraction.
            (3) Emissions.--Nitrogen oxides at less than 5 grams per 
        kilogram of fuel burned.
    (b) Implementation.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the NASA Administrator shall provide to the 
Committee on Science of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a plan for the 
implementation of the initiative described in subsection (a). Such 
implementation plan shall include--
            (1) technological roadmaps for achieving each of the 
        performance characteristics specified in subsection (a);
            (2) an estimate of the 10-year funding profile required to 
        achieve the objective specified in subsection (a);
            (3) a plan for carrying out a formal quantification of the 
        estimated costs and benefits of each technological option 
        selected for development beyond the initial concept definition 
        phase; and
            (4) a plan for transferring the technologies to industry, 
        including the identification of requirements for prototype 
        demonstrations, as appropriate.
    (c) Review.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the NASA Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with 
the National Research Council to review the adequacy of the 
implementation plan provided under subsection (b) to achieve the 
objective described in subsection (a). In addition, the NASA 
Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with the National 
Research Council for the review, every 3 years after the initial review 
under this subsection, of NASA's progress in achieving the objective 
described in subsection (a), including recommendations for changes to 
NASA's research and development program. The results of each review 
shall be provided to the Committee on Science of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate within 30 days after the review is 
completed.
    (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--
            (1) In general.--Of the amounts authorized to be 
        appropriated under section 107, there are authorized to be 
        appropriated to the NASA Administrator to carry out this 
        section--
                    (A) $125,000,000 for fiscal year 2004;
                    (B) $150,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
                    (C) $175,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;
                    (D) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2007; and
                    (E) $225,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.
            (2) Amounts to certain entities.--Of the amounts authorized 
        to be appropriated in paragraph (1), the percentage of the 
        annual appropriation that shall be used to fund research and 
        development conducted at universities, industrial research 
        entities, and not-for-profit research consortia is--
                    (A) 20 percent for fiscal year 2004;
                    (B) 30 percent for fiscal year 2005;
                    (C) 40 percent for fiscal year 2006; and
                    (D) 50 percent for fiscal years 2007 and 2008.

SEC. 102. ROTORCRAFT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE.

    (a) Objective.--Not later than 10 years after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the NASA Administrator shall develop and demonstrate, in a 
relevant environment, technologies that result in rotorcraft with the 
following improvements compared to rotorcraft operating on the date of 
enactment of this Act:
            (1) 80 percent reduction in noise levels on takeoff and on 
        approach and landing as perceived by a human observer.
            (2) Factor of 10 percent reduction in vibration.
            (3) 30 percent reduction in empty weight.
            (4) Predicted accident rate equivalent to that of fixed-
        wing aircraft in commercial service.
            (5) Capability for zero-ceiling, zero-visibility 
        operations.
    (b) Implementation.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the NASA Administrator shall provide a plan to 
the Committee on Science of the House of Representatives and to the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate for 
the implementation of the initiative described in subsection (a). The 
implementation plan shall include--
            (1) technological roadmaps for achieving each of the 
        improvements specified in subsection (a);
            (2) an estimate of the 10-year funding profile required to 
        achieve the objective specified in subsection (a);
            (3) a plan for carrying out a formal quantification of the 
        estimated costs and benefits of each technological option 
        selected for development beyond the initial concept definition 
        phase; and
            (4) a plan for transferring the technologies to industry, 
        including the identification of requirements for prototype 
        demonstrations, as appropriate.
    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--Of the amounts authorized to 
be appropriated under section 107, there are authorized to be 
appropriated to the NASA Administrator to carry out this section--
            (1) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2004;
            (2) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
            (3) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;
            (4) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2007; and
            (5) $70,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.

SEC. 103. CIVIL SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 
              INITIATIVE.

    (a) Objective.--Not later than 20 years after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the NASA Administrator shall develop and demonstrate, in a 
relevant environment, technologies to enable overland flight of 
supersonic civil transport aircraft with at least the following 
performance characteristics:
            (1) Mach number of at least 1.6.
            (2) Range of at least 4,000 nautical miles.
            (3) Payload of at least 150 passengers.
            (4) Lift to drag ratio of at least 9.0.
            (5) Noise levels on takeoff and on airport approach and 
        landing that meet community noise standards in place at 
        airports from which such commercial supersonic aircraft would 
        normally operate at the time the aircraft would enter 
        commercial service.
            (6) Shaped signature sonic boom overpressure of less than 
        1.0 pounds per square foot.
            (7) Nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 15 grams per 
        kilogram of fuel burned.
            (8) Water vapor emissions for stratospheric flight of no 
        greater than 1,400 grams per kilogram of fuel burned.
    (b) Implementation.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the NASA Administrator shall provide to the 
Committee on Science of the House of Representatives and to the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a plan 

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