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S. 983 (is) To suspend temporarily the duty on Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) [Introduced in Senate] ...


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108th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                 S. 982

 To halt Syrian support for terrorism, end its occupation of Lebanon, 
stop its development of weapons of mass destruction, cease its illegal 
 importation of Iraqi oil, and hold Syria accountable for its role in 
                the Middle East, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                              May 1, 2003

  Mrs. Boxer (for herself and Mr. Santorum) introduced the following 
  bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign 
                               Relations

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
 To halt Syrian support for terrorism, end its occupation of Lebanon, 
stop its development of weapons of mass destruction, cease its illegal 
 importation of Iraqi oil, and hold Syria accountable for its role in 
                the Middle East, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Syria Accountability Act of 2003''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 
        (September 28, 2001) mandates that all states ``refrain from 
        providing any form of support, active or passive, to entities 
        or persons involved in terrorist acts'', take ``the necessary 
        steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts'', and ``deny 
        safe haven to those who finance, plan, support, or commit 
        terrorist acts''.
            (2) The Government of Syria is currently prohibited by 
        United States law from receiving United States assistance 
        because it is listed as a state sponsor of terrorism.
            (3) Although the Secretary of State lists Syria as a state 
        sponsor of terrorism and reports that Syria provides ``safe 
        haven and support to several terrorist groups'', fewer United 
        States sanctions apply with respect to Syria than with respect 
        to any other country that the Secretary lists as a state 
        sponsor of terrorism.
            (4) Terrorist groups, including Hizballah, Hamas, the 
        Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and the Popular 
        Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command, maintain 
        offices, training camps, and other facilities on Syrian 
        territory and operate in areas of Lebanon occupied by the 
        Syrian armed forces and receive supplies from Iran through 
        Syria.
            (5) United Nations Security Council Resolution 520 
        (September 17, 1982) calls for ``strict respect of the 
        sovereignty, territorial integrity, unity and political 
        independence of Lebanon under the sole and exclusive authority 
        of the Government of Lebanon through the Lebanese Army 
        throughout Lebanon''.
            (6) More than 20,000 Syrian troops and security personnel 
        occupy much of the sovereign territory of Lebanon, thereby 
        exerting undue influence upon its government and undermining 
        its political independence.
            (7) Since 1990 the Senate and House of Representatives have 
        passed seven bills and resolutions calling for the withdrawal 
        of Syrian armed forces from Lebanon.
            (8) Large and increasing numbers of the Lebanese people 
        from across the political spectrum in Lebanon have mounted 
        peaceful and democratic calls for the withdrawal of the Syrian 
        Army from Lebanese soil.
            (9) Israel has withdrawn all of its armed forces from 
        Lebanon in accordance with United Nations Security Council 
        Resolution 425 (March 19, 1978), as certified by the United 
        Nations Secretary General.
            (10) Even in the face of this United Nations certification 
        that acknowledged Israel's full compliance with Resolution 425, 
        Syria permits attacks by Hizballah and other militant 
        organizations on Israeli outposts at Shebaa Farms, under the 
        false guise that it remains Lebanese land. Syria also permits 
        attacks on civilian targets in Israel.
            (11) Syria will not allow Lebanon, a sovereign country, to 
        fulfill its obligation in accordance with Security Council 
        Resolution 425 to deploy its troops to southern Lebanon.
            (12) As a result, the Israeli-Lebanese border and much of 
        southern Lebanon is under the control of Hizballah, which 
        continues to attack Israeli positions and allows Iranian 
        Revolutionary Guards and other militant groups to operate 
        freely in the area, destabilizing the entire region.
            (13) The United States provides $40,000,000 in assistance 
        to the Lebanese people through private nongovernmental 
        organizations, $7,900,000 of which is provided to Lebanese-
        American educational institutions.
            (14) In the State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, 
        President George W. Bush declared that the United States will 
        ``work closely with our coalition to deny terrorists and their 
        state sponsors the materials, technology, and expertise to make 
        and deliver weapons of mass destruction''.
            (15) The Government of Syria continues to develop and 
        deploy short- and medium-range ballistic missiles.
            (16) The Government of Syria is pursuing the development 
        and production of biological and chemical weapons.
            (17) United Nations Security Council Resolution 661 (August 
        6, 1990) and subsequent relevant resolutions restrict the sale 
        of oil and other commodities by Iraq, except to the extent 
        authorized by other relevant resolutions.
            (18) Syrian President Bashar Assad promised the Secretary 
        of State in February 2001 to end violations of Security Council 
        Resolution 661 but this pledge has not been fulfilled.
            (19) In direct violation of United Nations Sanctions, Syria 
        has been importing 200,000 barrels of Iraqi oil on a daily 
        basis since 2000, which has provided Iraq with up to 
        $1,200,000,000 annually.
            (20) There are reports that Syria is pursuing the 
        development of chemical weapons, such as VX and Sarin, and is 
        harboring fugitive Iraqi officials.
            (21) On April 20, 2003, President Bush said there were 
        positive signs that Syria will cooperate on the issue of 
        harboring fugitive Iraqi officials.

SEC. 3. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the Government of Syria should immediately and 
        unconditionally halt support for terrorism, permanently and 
        openly declare its total renunciation of all forms of 
        terrorism, and close all terrorist offices and facilities in 
        Syria, including the offices of Hamas, Hizballah, the Popular 
        Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and the Popular Front 
        for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command;
            (2) in accordance with United Nations Security Council 
        Resolution 520 (September 17, 1982), which calls for the strict 
        respect for Lebanon's sovereignty and territorial integrity, 
        the Government of Syria should immediately declare its 
        commitment to completely withdraw its armed forces, including 
        military, paramilitary, and security forces, from Lebanon, and 
        set a firm schedule for such withdrawal;
            (3) the Government of Syria should halt the development and 
        deployment of short- and medium-range ballistic missiles and 
        cease the development and production of biological and chemical 
        weapons;
            (4) the Government of Syria should halt illegal imports and 
        transshipments of Iraqi oil and come into full compliance with 
        United Nations Security Council Resolution 661 and subsequent 
        relevant resolutions;
            (5) the Governments of Lebanon and Syria should enter into 
        serious unconditional bilateral negotiations with the 
        Government of Israel in order to realize a full and permanent 
        peace; and
            (6) the United States should continue to provide 
        humanitarian and educational assistance to the people of 
        Lebanon only through appropriate private, nongovernmental 
        organizations and appropriate international organizations, 
        until such time as the Government of Lebanon asserts 
        sovereignty and control over all of its territory and borders 
        and achieves full political independence, as called for in 
        United Nations Security Council Resolution 520.

SEC. 4. STATEMENT OF POLICY.

    It is the policy of the United States that--
            (1) Syria should bear responsibility for all attacks 
        committed by Hizballah and other terrorist groups with offices 
        or other facilities in Syria, or bases in areas of Lebanon 
        occupied by Syria;
            (2) the United States will work to deny Syria the ability 
        to support acts of international terrorism and efforts to 
        develop or acquire weapons of mass destruction;
            (3) the Secretary of State will continue to list Syria as a 
        state sponsor of terrorism until Syria ends its support for 
        terrorism, including its support of Hizballah and other 
        terrorist groups in Lebanon and its hosting of terrorist groups 
        in Damascus, and comes into full compliance with United States 
        law relating to terrorism and United Nations Security Council 
        Resolution 1373 (September 28, 2001);
            (4) the full restoration of Lebanon's sovereignty, 
        political independence, and territorial integrity is in the 
        national security interest of the United States;
            (5) Syria is in violation of United Nations Security 
        Council Resolution 520 (September 17, 1982) through its 
        continued occupation of Lebanese territory and its encroachment 
        upon its political independence;
            (6) Syria's obligation to withdraw from Lebanon is not 
        conditioned upon progress in the Israeli-Syrian or Israeli-
        Lebanese peace process but derives from Syria's obligation 
        under Security Council Resolution 520;
            (7) Syria's acquisition of weapons of mass destruction and 
        ballistic missile programs threaten the security of the Middle 
        East and the national interests of the United States;
            (8) Syria has violated United Nations Security Council 
        Resolution 661 (August 6, 1990) and subsequent relevant 
        resolutions by purchasing oil from Iraq; and
            (9) the United States will restrict assistance to Syria and 
        will oppose multilateral assistance for Syria until Syria 
        withdraws its armed forces from Lebanon, halts the development 
        and deployment of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic 
        missiles, and complies with Security Council Resolution 661 and 
        subsequent relevant resolutions.

SEC. 5. PENALTIES AND AUTHORIZATION.

    (a) Sanctions.--Unless the President makes the certification 
described in subsection (d), the President shall take the following 
actions:
            (1) Prohibit the export to Syria, and prohibit the issuance 
        of a license for the export to Syria, of--
                    (A) any defense articles or defense services for 
                which special export controls are warranted under the 
                Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.), as 
                identified on the United States Munitions List 
                maintained under section 121.1 of title 22, Code of 
                Federal Regulations; and
                    (B) any item identified on the Commerce Control 
                List maintained under part 774 of title 15, Code of 
                Federal Regulations.
            (2) Impose two or more of the following sanctions:
                    (A) Prohibit the export of products of the United 
                States (other than food and medicine) to Syria.
                    (B) Prohibit United States businesses from 
                investing or operating in Syria.
                    (C) Restrict travel of Syrian diplomats assigned to 
                Washington, District of Columbia or the United Nations 
                in New York, New York, to a 25-mile radius of 
                Washington or the United Nations headquarters building, 
                respectively.
                    (D) Reduce United States diplomatic contacts with 
                Syria (other than those contacts required to protect 
                United States interests or carry out the purposes of 
                this Act).
                    (E) Block transactions in any property in which the 
                Government of Syria has any interest, by any person, or 
                with respect to any property, subject to the 
                jurisdiction of the United States.
    (b) Waiver.--The President may waive the application of paragraph 
(2) of subsection (a) if--
            (1) the President determines that it is in the national 
        security interest of the United States to do so; and
            (2) submits to the appropriate congressional committees a 
        report that contains the reasons for such determination.
    (c) Authority To Provide Assistance to Syria and Lebanon.--The 
President is authorized to provide assistance to Syria and Lebanon 
under chapter 1 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 
U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) (relating to development assistance), if the 
President--
            (1) makes the certification described in subsection (d);
            (2) determines that substantial progress has been made in 
        negotiations aimed at achieving--
                    (A) a peace agreement between Israel and Syria; and
                    (B) a peace agreement between Israel and Lebanon; 
                and
            (3) determines that the Government of Syria is strictly 
        respecting the sovereignty, territorial integrity, unity, and 
        political independence of Lebanon under the sole and exclusive 
        authority of the Government of Lebanon through the Lebanese 
        army throughout Lebanon, as required under paragraph (4) of 
        United Nations Security Council Resolution 520 (1982).
    (d) Certification.--The President shall transmit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a certification of any determination made by 
the President that--
            (1) the Government of Syria does not--
                    (A) provide support for international terrorist 
                groups; and
                    (B) allow terrorist groups, such as Hamas, 
                Hizballah, the Popular Front for the Liberation of 
                Palestine, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of 
                Palestine--General Command to maintain facilities in 
                Syria;
            (2) the Government of Syria has withdrawn all Syrian 
        military, intelligence, and other security personnel from 
        Lebanon;
            (3) the Government of Syria has ceased the development and 
        deployment of ballistic missiles and has ceased the development 
        and production of biological and chemical weapons; and
            (4) the Government of Syria is no longer in violation of 
        United Nations Security Council Resolution 661 or a subsequent 
        relevant United Nations resolution.

SEC. 6. REPORT.

    (a) Report.--Not later than 6 months after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 12 months thereafter until the 
President makes the certification described in section 5(d), the 

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