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S.Doc.104-21 APPROPRIATIONS REQUEST (EC 3272) ...
104th Congress, 2d Session / Senate Document 104-20 ________________________________________________________________________ Resolved: that the Federal Government should establish a program to substantially reduce juvenile crime in the United States ________________________________________________________________________ NATIONAL DEBATE TOPIC FOR HIGH SCHOOLS, 1996-97 Pursuant to 44 United States Code, Section 1333 Compiled by the Congressional Research Service Library of Congress 44 U.S. CODE SECTION 1333 (a) The Librarian of Congress shall prepare compilations of pertinent excerpts, bibliographical references, and other appropriate materials relating to: (1) the subject selected annually by the National University Extension Association as the national high school debate topics and (2) the subject selected annually by the American Speech Association as the national college debate topic. In preparing the compilations the Librarian shall include materials which in his judgment are representative of, and give equal emphasis to, the opposing points of view on the respective topics. (b) The compilations on the high school debate topics shall be printed as Senate documents and the compilations on the college debate topics shall be printed as House of Representative documents, the cost of which shall be charged to the congressional allotment for printing and binding. Additional copies of such documents may be printed in the quantities and distributed in the manner as the Joint Committee on Printing directs. (Pub. L. 90-620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1270.) CONTENTS FOREWORD v INTRODUCTION vii RESOLVED: THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD ESTABLISH A PROGRAM TO SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE JUVENILE CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES (An Annotated Bibliography on the 1996-1997 High School Debate Topic) I. GENERAL 3 II. CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND VIOLENCE 8 III. ADMINISTRATION OF JUVENILE JUSTICE 13 A. GENERAL 13 B. JUVENILE COURTS 17 C. JUVENILE CORRECTIONS, JUVENILE DETENTION, JUVENILE INSTITUTIONS, JUVENILE PAROLE, AND JUVENILE PROBATION 19 D. PRISON BOOT CAMPS 23 E. REHABILITATION 24 IV. DELINQUENCY PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION 27 V. DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE 35 A. DRUG USE PATTERNS 35 B. CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND LAW ENFORCEMENT 38 C. EDUCATION, PREVENTION, INTERVENTION, AND TREATMENT 42 VI. GANGS 48 A. GENERAL 48 B. PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION 53 VII. SCHOOL VIOLENCE AND SECURITY 55 A. GENERAL 55 B. PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION 58 VIII. VIOLENCE IN MASS MEDIA 61 A GUIDE TO INFORMATION SOURCES ON THE 1996-1997 HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE TOPIC 67 AVAILABLE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS ON THE 1996-1997 HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE TOPIC 85 Congressional Research Service - The Library of Congress - Washington, D.C. 20540-7000 FOREWORD The 1996-1997 high school debate topic is "Resolved: that the Federal Government should establish a program to substantially reduce juvenile crime in the United States." In compliance with 44 U.S. Code 1333, the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress prepared this compilation of materials and bibliographic references to assist high school debaters in researching the topic. In selecting items for this manual, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) has sampled the wide spectrum of opinions reflected in current literature on these questions. No preference for any policy is indicated by the selection or positioning of articles cited, nor is CRS disapproval of any policy or article to be inferred from its omission. The annotated bibliography covers such topics as delinquency and prevention, juvenile courts, corrections, rehabilitation, drug and alcohol abuse, gangs, and school violence. A research guide is included at the end of this volume; it is intended to help debaters identify further references and organizational resources on their own. Also included is a list of relevant publications that are available for purchase from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office. Some of the U.S. Government documents listed in the manual may be found in U.S. Government depository libraries, which can be identified by local public libraries. The Library of Congress cannot distribute copies of these or other materials to debaters. Because this document is so widely used, GPO has also placed it on its Web site for direct viewing or downloading into ASCII text or Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). The address is: http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aaces800.shtml The bibliography and research guide were prepared by Tangela G. Roe, Bibliographer in the Library Services Division. Valerie Miles-Washington produced the bibliography and the research guide. Good luck to each debater in researching, preparing, and presenting arguments on this year's topic. Daniel P. Mulhollan, Director Congressional Research Service INTRODUCTION This selected bibliography provides citations to assist high school debaters with research on the 1996-1997 debate topic on juvenile crime. It covers a number of issues associated with juvenile delinquency and crime. Monographs, journal and magazine articles, reports, and Congressional publications from recent years are included, particularly focusing on publications from 1991 to present. Sources in this annotated bibliography were obtained from the computerized bibliographic database created and maintained by the Congressional Research Service's Library Services Division and from the Library of Congress' online catalog. The General section includes sources addressing several facets of juvenile delinquency. This section also includes general discussions of recent trends in urban crime, with a particular focus on crimes committed by juveniles. The next section, Causes of Juvenile Delinquency and Violence, identifies sources addressing the reasons why certain people become criminals, particularly focusing on juveniles. The third section, Administration of Juvenile Justice, includes the following subsections: A. General; B. Juvenile Courts; C. Juvenile Corrections, Juvenile Detention, Juvenile Institutions, Juvenile Parole, and Juvenile Probation; D. Prison Boot Camps; and E. Rehabilitation. The Delinquency Prevention and Intervention section addresses general discussions of delinquency preventive strategies. Strategies focusing on preventing particular problems, such as drug abuse or gangs, are included in the appropriate section. The fifth section, Drug and Alcohol Abuse, includes the following subsections: A. Drug Use Patterns; B. Criminal Behavior and Law Enforcement; and C. Education, Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment. The section on Gangs, includes the following subsections: A. General and B. Prevention and Intervention. The penultimate section, School Violence and Security, includes the following subsections: A. General and B. Prevention and Intervention. The final section, Violence in Mass Media, includes sources examining whether there is inappropriate violence in the media, the effect that media violence might have on young people, and the limits to which government should attempt to censor violence in the media. The author wishes to thank her colleagues in the Congressional Research Service for their help in the preparation of this bibliography. Thanks are also extended to the following Library Services Division colleagues for their assistance--Kris Vajs, Head, Subject Specialization Section; Sherry Shapiro, Bibliographic Specialist; and Bibliographic Assistant, Valerie Miles-Washington, for technical production work. Thanks are also extended to CRS colleagues Jennifer Neisner, Suzanne Cavanagh, Liane E. White, David Teasley, and Edith Cooper. Resolved that the Federal Government should establish a program to substantially reduce juvenile crime in the United States An Annotated Bibliography on the 1996-1997 High School Debate Topic Tangela G. Roe Senior Bibliographer Library Services Division with the assistance of Valerie Miles-Washington, Bibliographic Assistant June 1996 I. GENERAL Adolescent sex offenders: issues in research and treatment. Edited by Emeline M. Otey and Gail D. Ryan. Rockville, Md., National Institute of Mental Health, 1985. 183 p. (DHHS publication no. (ADM) 85-1396) Partial contents.--Identifying adolescent sex offenders: family incest treatment programs as source.--Methodological and ethical issues in evaluating and treating adolescent sexual offenders.--An outpatient program's perspective on research directions. African-American perspectives on crime causation, criminal justice administration, and crime prevention. Edited by Anne T. Sulton. Englewood, Colo., Sulton Books, 1994. 222 p. HV6028.A33 1994 Partial contents.--The colonial model as a theoretical explanation of crime and delinquency.--Blacks, self-esteem, and delinquency: it's time for a new approach.--Drugs and violence in gangs.--Black female delinquency.--Family and delinquency: African-American female-headed households and chronic maladaptive behavior by juveniles.--Reducing the involvement of African American males in the criminal justice system: a policy paper.--Preventing crime through economic development of urban neighborhoods. Bartollas, Clemens. Juvenile delinquency. 3rd ed. New York, Macmillan, 1993. 610 p. HV9104.B345 1993 "Instead of viewing delinquency in terms of only one context, such as that of the legal or justice system, this book examines delinquency in broader terms--the sociocultural, legal, political, economic, and historical contexts. All these contexts impinge on present efforts to prevent and control delinquency and on future attempts to create hope and a new vision for youths in trouble. This edition, examines delinquency from a sociological perspective. The book also evaluates the justice system's effectiveness in controlling juvenile delinquency, reviews recent legislation and court rulings on the rights of youthful offenders, examines the rights of adolescents in general, and assesses legal efforts to correct their antisocial behavior." Bennett, Richard R. Basiotis, P. Peter. Structural correlates of juvenile property crime: a cross-national, time-series analysis. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, v. 28, Aug. 1991: 262-287. "The present study employs a fixed effect, pooled, cross-section, time-series analysis with a sample of 29 nations over a 25-year span to evaluate a structural model of juvenile delinquency. The findings indicate that selected correlates of juvenile delinquency such as level of industrialization, educational opportunity, national wealth, and guardianship do not always behave as commonly believed." Bigelow, Aileen M. In the ghetto: the state's duty to protect inner-city children from violence. Notre Dame journal of law, ethics & public policy, v. 7, no. 2, 1993: 533-567. "This article explores life for young children living in the violence-ridden communities of the inner-city housing projects." Children and violence. Edited by David Reiss . . . [et al.] New York, Guilford Press, 1993. 136 p. HQ784.V55C44 1993 Partial contents.--The NIMH Community Violence Project: I. Children as victims of witnessses to violence: what is happening to our children?.--II. The NIMH Community Violence Project: children's distress symptoms associated with violence exposure.--Chronic community violence: what is happening to our children?--Children's exposure to community violence: following a path from concern to research to action.--Impact of violence on children and adolescents: report from a community-based child psychiatry clinic. Clark, Charles S. Suburban crime. CQ researcher, v. 3, Sept. 3, 1993: whole issue (769-792 p.) "Envied for decades as havens from crime, the nation's suburbs are increasingly the setting for burglaries, rapes, car thefts and gunfights between youth gangs. Many residents fear that crime is spilling out from the inner cities on highways and public transportation systems, but others argue that most suburban crime is home-grown. While homeowners install burglar alarms and build walls around their subdivisions, social critics warn against widening racial and class divisions and the decline of America's sense of community. As land-use planners rethink the design of suburban tracts and shopping malls, suburban residents are joining Neighborhood Watch anti-crime groups." Collins, Jessica. Kids hurting kids for sex. Insight (Washington times), v. 8, July 26, 1992:
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