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        104th Congress, 2d Session / Senate Document 104-20  

________________________________________________________________________


Resolved: that the Federal Government should establish a program to 
substantially reduce juvenile crime in the United States

________________________________________________________________________

 
           NATIONAL DEBATE TOPIC FOR HIGH SCHOOLS, 1996-97
           Pursuant to 44 United States Code, Section 1333

           Compiled by the Congressional Research Service
                       Library of Congress



                    44 U.S. CODE SECTION 1333

 (a)  The Librarian of Congress shall prepare compilations of pertinent  
excerpts, bibliographical references, and other appropriate materials 
relating to:
 (1) the subject selected annually by the National University Extension 
Association as the national high school debate topics and 
 (2) the subject selected annually by the American Speech Association as 
the national college debate topic.  

 In preparing the compilations the Librarian shall include materials 
which in his judgment are representative of, and give equal emphasis to, 
the opposing points of view on the respective topics.
 (b)  The compilations on the high school debate topics shall be printed 
as Senate documents and the compilations on the college debate topics 
shall be printed as House of Representative documents, the cost of which 
shall be charged to the congressional allotment for printing and binding.  
Additional copies of such documents may be printed in the quantities and 
distributed in the manner as the Joint Committee on Printing directs.

(Pub. L. 90-620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1270.)




                            CONTENTS


 FOREWORD   v

 INTRODUCTION vii

   RESOLVED: THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD ESTABLISH A PROGRAM TO 
SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE JUVENILE CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES (An Annotated 
Bibliography on the 1996-1997 High School Debate Topic) 

  I.  GENERAL   3
  II.  CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND VIOLENCE   8
  III.  ADMINISTRATION OF JUVENILE JUSTICE  13
    A.  GENERAL  13
    B.  JUVENILE COURTS  17
    C.  JUVENILE CORRECTIONS, JUVENILE DETENTION, JUVENILE INSTITUTIONS, 
JUVENILE PAROLE, AND JUVENILE PROBATION  19
    D.  PRISON BOOT CAMPS  23
    E.  REHABILITATION  24
  IV.  DELINQUENCY PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION  27
  V.  DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE  35
    A.  DRUG USE PATTERNS  35
    B.  CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND LAW ENFORCEMENT  38
    C.  EDUCATION, PREVENTION, INTERVENTION, AND TREATMENT  42
  VI.  GANGS  48
    A.  GENERAL  48
    B.  PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION  53
  VII.  SCHOOL VIOLENCE AND SECURITY  55
    A.  GENERAL  55
    B.  PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION  58
  VIII.  VIOLENCE IN MASS MEDIA  61

 A GUIDE TO INFORMATION SOURCES ON THE 1996-1997 HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE TOPIC  67

 AVAILABLE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS ON THE 1996-1997 HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE 
TOPIC  85


    Congressional Research Service - The Library of Congress - Washington, 
                          D.C. 20540-7000

                                FOREWORD


 The 1996-1997 high school debate topic is "Resolved: that the Federal 
Government should establish a program to substantially reduce juvenile 
crime in the United States."

 In compliance with 44 U.S. Code 1333, the Congressional Research Service 
of the Library of Congress prepared this compilation of materials and 
bibliographic references to assist high school debaters in researching the 
topic.  In selecting items for this manual, the Congressional Research 
Service (CRS) has sampled the wide spectrum of opinions reflected in 
current literature on these questions.  No preference for any policy is 
indicated by the selection or positioning of articles cited, nor is CRS 
disapproval of any policy or article to be inferred from its omission.

 The annotated bibliography covers such topics as delinquency and prevention, 
juvenile courts, corrections, rehabilitation, drug and alcohol abuse, gangs, 
and school violence.

 A research guide is included at the end of this volume; it is intended to 
help debaters identify further references and organizational resources on 
their own.  Also included is a list of relevant publications that are 
available for purchase from the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office.  Some of the U.S. Government documents listed in the manual 
may be found in U.S. Government depository libraries, which can be 
identified by local public libraries.  The Library of Congress cannot 
distribute copies of these or other materials to debaters.  Because this 
document is so widely used, GPO has also placed it on its Web site for direct 
viewing or downloading into ASCII text or Adobe Acrobat Portable Document 
Format (PDF).  The address is:
 http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aaces800.shtml

 The bibliography and research guide were prepared by Tangela G. Roe, 
Bibliographer in the Library Services Division.  Valerie Miles-Washington 
produced the bibliography and the research guide.  

 Good luck to each debater in researching, preparing, and presenting 
arguments on this year's topic.




                                             Daniel P. Mulhollan, Director
                                            Congressional Research Service



                               INTRODUCTION

 This selected bibliography provides citations to assist high school debaters 
with research on the 1996-1997 debate topic on juvenile crime.  It covers a 
number of issues associated with juvenile delinquency and crime.

 Monographs, journal and magazine articles, reports, and Congressional 
publications from recent years are included, particularly focusing on 
publications from 1991 to present.  Sources in this annotated bibliography 
were obtained from the computerized bibliographic database created and 
maintained by the Congressional Research Service's Library Services Division 
and from the Library of Congress' online catalog.

 The General section includes sources addressing several facets of juvenile 
delinquency.  This section also includes general discussions of recent trends 
in urban crime, with a particular focus on crimes committed by juveniles.

 The next section, Causes of Juvenile Delinquency and Violence, identifies 
sources addressing the reasons why certain people become criminals, 
particularly focusing on juveniles.

 The third section, Administration of Juvenile Justice, includes the 
following subsections: A.  General; B.  Juvenile Courts; C.  Juvenile 
Corrections, Juvenile Detention, Juvenile Institutions, Juvenile Parole, 
and Juvenile Probation; D.  Prison Boot Camps; and E.  Rehabilitation.

 The Delinquency Prevention and Intervention section addresses general 
discussions of delinquency preventive strategies.  Strategies focusing on 
preventing particular problems, such as drug abuse or gangs, are included 
in the appropriate section.

 The fifth section, Drug and Alcohol Abuse, includes the following 
subsections:  A.  Drug Use Patterns; B.  Criminal Behavior and Law 
Enforcement; and C.  Education, Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment.

 The section on Gangs, includes the following subsections:  A.  General 
and B.  Prevention and Intervention.

 The penultimate section, School Violence and Security, includes the 
following subsections:  A.  General and B.  Prevention and Intervention.

 The final section, Violence in Mass Media, includes sources examining 
whether there is inappropriate violence in the media, the effect that 
media violence might have on young people, and the limits to which 
government should attempt to censor violence in the media.

 The author wishes to thank her colleagues in the Congressional Research 
Service for their help in the preparation of this bibliography.  Thanks are 
also extended to the following Library Services Division colleagues for 
their assistance--Kris Vajs, Head, Subject Specialization Section; Sherry 
Shapiro, Bibliographic Specialist; and Bibliographic Assistant, Valerie 
Miles-Washington, for technical production work.  Thanks are also extended 
to CRS colleagues Jennifer Neisner, Suzanne Cavanagh, Liane E. White, David 
Teasley, and Edith Cooper.







       
           Resolved that the Federal Government should 
           establish a program to substantially reduce 
               juvenile crime in the United States


                An Annotated Bibliography on the
               1996-1997 High School Debate Topic

                        Tangela G. Roe
                     Senior Bibliographer
                  Library Services Division


                    with the assistance of
       Valerie Miles-Washington, Bibliographic Assistant

                           June 1996



                          I.  GENERAL



 Adolescent sex offenders: issues in research and treatment.  Edited by 
Emeline M. Otey and Gail D. Ryan.  Rockville, Md., National Institute of 
Mental Health, 1985.  183 p.  (DHHS publication no. (ADM) 85-1396) 
  Partial contents.--Identifying adolescent sex offenders: family incest 
treatment programs as source.--Methodological and ethical issues in 
evaluating and treating adolescent sexual offenders.--An outpatient 
program's perspective on research directions. 

 African-American perspectives on crime causation, criminal justice 
administration, and crime prevention.  Edited by Anne T. Sulton.  Englewood, 
Colo., Sulton Books, 1994.  222 p. HV6028.A33 1994
  Partial contents.--The colonial model as a theoretical explanation of crime 
and delinquency.--Blacks, self-esteem, and delinquency: it's time for a new 
approach.--Drugs and violence in gangs.--Black female delinquency.--Family and 
delinquency: African-American female-headed households and chronic maladaptive 
behavior by juveniles.--Reducing the involvement of African American males in 
the criminal justice system: a policy paper.--Preventing crime through 
economic development of urban neighborhoods. 

Bartollas, Clemens.
 Juvenile delinquency.  3rd ed.  New York, Macmillan, 1993.  610 p. 
HV9104.B345 1993
  "Instead of viewing delinquency in terms of only one context, such as that 
of the legal or justice system, this book examines delinquency in broader 
terms--the sociocultural, legal, political, economic, and historical 
contexts.  All these contexts impinge on present efforts to prevent and 
control delinquency and on future attempts to create hope and a new vision 
for youths in trouble.  This edition, examines delinquency from a 
sociological perspective.  The book also evaluates the justice system's 
effectiveness in controlling juvenile delinquency, reviews recent 
legislation and court rulings on the rights of youthful offenders, examines 
the rights of adolescents in general, and assesses legal efforts to correct 
their antisocial behavior." 

Bennett, Richard R.  Basiotis, P. Peter.
 Structural correlates of juvenile property crime: a cross-national, 
time-series analysis.  Journal of research in crime and delinquency, v. 28, 
Aug. 1991: 262-287. 
  "The present study employs a fixed effect, pooled, cross-section, 
time-series analysis with a sample of 29 nations over a 25-year span to 
evaluate a structural model of juvenile delinquency.  The findings indicate 
that selected correlates of juvenile delinquency such as level of 
industrialization, educational opportunity, national wealth, and 
guardianship do not always behave as commonly believed." 

Bigelow, Aileen M.
 In the ghetto: the state's duty to protect inner-city children from 
violence.  Notre Dame journal of law, ethics & public policy, v. 7, 
no. 2, 1993: 533-567. 
  "This article explores life for young children living in the 
violence-ridden communities of the inner-city housing projects." 

 Children and violence.  Edited by David Reiss . . .  [et al.]  New York, 
Guilford Press, 1993.  136 p. HQ784.V55C44 1993
  Partial contents.--The NIMH Community Violence Project: I. Children as 
victims of witnessses to violence: what is happening to our children?.--II. 
The NIMH Community Violence Project: children's distress symptoms associated 
with violence exposure.--Chronic community violence: what is happening to our 
children?--Children's exposure to community violence: following a path from 
concern to research to action.--Impact of violence on children and 
adolescents: report from a community-based child psychiatry clinic. 

Clark, Charles S.
 Suburban crime.  CQ researcher, v. 3, Sept. 3, 1993: whole issue 
(769-792 p.)  
  "Envied for decades as havens from crime, the nation's suburbs are 
increasingly the setting for burglaries, rapes, car thefts and gunfights 
between youth gangs.  Many residents fear that crime is spilling out from 
the inner cities on highways and public transportation systems, but others 
argue that most suburban crime is home-grown.  While homeowners install 
burglar alarms and build walls around their subdivisions, social critics 
warn against widening racial and class divisions and the decline of 
America's sense of community.  As land-use planners rethink the design of 
suburban tracts and shopping malls, suburban residents are joining 
Neighborhood Watch anti-crime groups." 

Collins, Jessica.
 Kids hurting kids for sex.  Insight (Washington times), v. 8, July 26, 1992: 

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