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S.Doc.104-26 VICE PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 1789-1993 ...
104th Congress Document SENATE 2d Session 104-24 _______________________________________________________________________ JOINT COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS __________ FINAL REPORT TO CONGRESS on the JOINT RESOLUTION TO ESTABLISH A NATIONAL POLICY ON PERMANENT PAPERS <GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT> SEPTEMBER 1996 JOINT COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS MARK O. HATFIELD, Oregon, Chairman WILLIAM M. THOMAS, California, Vice Chairman HOUSE SENATE PAT ROBERTS, Kansas JOHN W. WARNER, Virginia ROBERT W. NEY, Ohio TED STEVENS, Alaska VIC FAZIO, California CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island ED PASTOR, Arizona DANIEL PATRICK MOYNIHAN, New York STAFF Chuck Frost (HATFIELD) Mary Sue Englund (THOMAS) LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL ---------- December 30, 1995. To the Secretary of the United States Senate: Pursuant to the provisions of Public Law 101-423, the Librarian of Congress, the Archivist of the United States, and the Public Printer herewith submit the final report in accordance with section 3 of the Joint Resolution to Establish a National Policy on Permanent Papers. Respectfully, James H. Billington, The Librarian of Congress. John W. Carlin, Archivist of the United States. Michael F. DiMario, Public Printer. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report to Congress is the last of three in which the Librarian of Congress, Archivist of the United States, and the Public Printer summarize the Federal Government's progress on implementing Public Law 101-423. Much has been accomplished since the law was passed in October 1990, particularly during the period 1994 through 1995. Highlights of these achievements, discussed in detail in the following report, include: Joint Committee on Printing (JCP) specifications developed for 4 new permanent papers and 16 new alkaline papers; JCP issued Government Paper Specification Standards (No. 10), from which the 20 newly specified papers can be procured; National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) issued NARA Bulletin No. 95-7, ``Procurement of Writing, Copying, and Printing Papers for Federal Records,'' which provides guidance to Federal agencies in the use of alkaline and permanent papers; Library of Congress (LC) continues research to identify new and improved methods for the artificial aging of paper; Research on the aging of lignin-containing alkaline papers initiated in both the United States (including LC and NARA) and Canada; New or revised standards for paper permanence issued by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the International Organization for Standards (ISO); Continued increase in U.S. production of alkaline paper; 99.9 percent of book papers procured through bulk purchase by the Government Printing Office (GPO) in 1995 were alkaline; and General Services Administration (GSA) provided papers for purchase that match the JCP specifications. Submission of this report discharges responsibilities assigned to the Librarian of Congress, Archivist of the United States, and the Public Printer, as set forth in Pub. L. 101- 423. However, since important work remains to be done, they have agreed to continue monitoring, on an ad hoc basis, progress in the implementation of the Government's permanent paper policy. Introduction Public Law 101-423, A Joint Resolution to Establish a National Policy on Permanent Papers (Section 3), states the following: The Librarian of Congress, the Archivist of the United States, and the Public Printer shall jointly monitor the Federal Government's progress in implementing the national policy * * * regarding acid free permanent papers and shall report to the Congress regarding such progress on December 31, 1991, December 31, 1993 and December 31, 1995. The Librarian of Congress, the Archivist of the United States, and the Public Printer (the monitoring agencies) have been working together to monitor implementation of the law since it was signed by the President on October 12, 1990. In addition, the agencies worked jointly to enhance the general level of knowledge in the Federal Government about the national policy on permanent paper, and to ensure that Federal agencies understand the criteria to be used to determine whether documents have enduring (i.e., long-term) value. This report is the last of three reports to Congress required by Pub. L. 101- 423. Progress in Monitoring Pub. L. 101-423 Definition of permanence Pub. L. 101-423 (Appendix 1) recommends the use of ``acid free permanent paper'' using the specifications established by the Joint Committee on Printing (JCP). For purposes of clarity, this report adheres to the JCP specifications. Thus, an acid free permanent paper is defined to be a fully bleached sheet with a pH of 7.5 or above, an alkaline reserve of 2 percent or more, a minimum MIT folding endurance in either direction of 30 double folds, and a minimum tearing strength in either direction of 25 grams for a 30 lb paper and proportionately higher tearing strengths for heavier papers. This definition matches most closely the first specification for permanent paper, ANSI Z39.48-1984, developed by National Information Standards Organization, which has strong support in the archival and library communities. Standards and specifications Federal. When Public Law 101-423 was passed five years ago, the Government had only one specification for permanent paper: JCP A270, uncoated permanent book, white and cream white. With the issuance in July 1994 of the latest version of the ``Government Paper Specification Standards (No. 10),'' the number of permanent papers available for Government use increased from one to five. The four new permanent papers are: JCP G40, Option A, 25 percent bond, white and colored (with 50 percent recovered material); JCP G60, Option A, 25 percent opacified bond, white and buff (with 50 percent recovered material); JCP H30, Option A, imitation parchment, laser-finish, white and colored; and JCP O-60, Option A, plain copier, xerographic, white, natural and colored. A number of alkaline papers have been added as option A to many existing specifications. The specification standards advise that option A should be specified if the printed product must have above average permanence. The alkaline option is available in 16 paper grades (Appendix 2). All of these JCP papers available through the Government Printing Office (GPO) and General Services Administration (GSA) are recyclable within the programs Federal agencies now operate. The monitoring agencies have been working with the GSA to ensure that some of the same papers available to Federal agencies in the Washington, DC area through the GPO will be available nationwide. GSA now offers three permanent papers and two alkaline papers (Table 1). TABLE 1.--PERMANENT AND ALKALINE PAPERS AVAILABLE FROM GSA ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Permanent/alkaline GSA order number Description ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Permanent....................... GSA NSN 7530-01- 25% bond, white, 398-2656 \1\. 20 lb, 8\1/ 2\<greek-e>11. Permanent....................... GSA NSN 7530-01- Plain copier, 398-2654. xerographic, white, 20 lb, 8\1/ 2\<greek-e>11. Permanent....................... GSA NSN 7530-01- Plain copier, 398-2655. xerographic, white, 20 lb, 8\1/ 2\<greek-e>14. Alkaline........................ GSA NSN 7530-01- Recycled plain 398-2652 \1\. copier, xerographic, 20 lb, 8\1/2\<greek- e>11. Alkaline........................ GSA NSN 7530-01- Recycled plain 398-2653 \1\. copier, xerographic, 20 lb, 8\1/2\<greek- e>14. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ \1\ Meets recovered and post consumer materials percentages cited in Executive Order 12873, Federal Acquisition, Recycling, Acquisition, and Waste Prevention. Private. In the United States, two organizations write consensus standards, specifications, or guidelines for papers that may be used for permanent records and publications intended for long-term retention. They are the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Both organizations develop standards or specifications by committees, which then submit them to the organization as a whole for a vote. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the Library of Congress (LC) are voting members of NISO and ASTM and are also represented on various committees. NISO develops American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, the primary function of which is to disseminate information. NISO published its first standard, ``Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials,'' Z39.48-1984, in 1984. The criteria for permanence established in this standard were used as a starting point for the JCP A270 (uncoated permanent book, white and cream white) specification. In 1992, the ANSI standard was revised to include coated papers and expanded to include archives materials. Thus, its new title, ``Permanence of Paper for Publications and Documents in Libraries and Archives,'' Z39.48-1992. Other changes included dropping the folding endurance requirement and replacing tear resistance with a tear index (Appendix 3). ASTM develops specifications, guides, and test methods for a wide variety of manufactured products. Its paper standards are written to incorporate requirements within the same standard for papers expected to have different life expectancies. The category ``maximum life expectancy,'' which replaced the category ``maximum permanence, high usage,'' defines the permanence requirements for manifold papers (D3208- 94), for bond and ledger papers (D3290-94), and for papers used in office copying machines (D3458-94). These specifications, together with the ``Guide for the Selection of Permanent and Durable Offset and Book Papers,'' (D5634-94), comprise the ASTM work on permanent paper. In the course of revising these ASTM specifications, the question arose whether an alkaline paper might still be considered permanent if it also contained more lignin (a component of wood that is almost completely removed by ``traditional'' chemical pulping and bleaching) than any of the specifications allowed. Because lignin-containing papers have traditionally been produced by an acidic process, no studies of historic papers exist to which scientists can refer in their search for an answer to that question. Valid methods for determining the potential longevity of alkaline papers with a high lignin content are needed because increasing quantities of these papers are now coming on the market. To facilitate this research, valid and reliable methods of artificial aging must be developed. The Library of Congress Research and Testing Office has been engaged in such research for the past three years, and has recently received support from ASTM to accelerate this effort. To spearhead this effort, ASTM (under the auspices of their Institute for Standards Research (ISR)) held a workshop in 1994 on the effects of aging on printing and writing papers. From this workshop evolved a series of research proposals pertaining to the development of aging methods using light, pollutants, heat, and humidity; and to the fundamental chemistry of the aging phenomena. The proposed research was estimated to require 3 years and to cost over $2.5 million. Although the research is not yet fully funded, initial work is proceeding on two projects. One is an investigation of the fundamentals of light aging to determine how aging can be accelerated without altering the chemical reactions from those that occur during natural aging. The second is an investigation of the effects of aging in low levels of air pollutants (including nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone). International. The body that develops standards for the international community, the International Organization for Standards (ISO), works closely with NISO. Thus, it is no coincidence that the requirements of the standard, ISO 9706, ``Information and Documentation--Paper for Documents-- Requirements for Permanence,'' are similar to those of ANSI standard Z39.48-1992. ISO 9706 differs slightly from ANSI Z39.48-1992 in fiber content (lignin, ground woodpulp, and unbleached pulp) and tear resistance measurement. In 1995, ISO developed a standard for archival papers, ISO/DIS 11108, ``Information and Documentation--Archival Paper--Requirements for Permanence and Durability'' (Appendix 3). A number of countries have developed standards for permanent papers that will probably be replaced by the ISO standard. The most debated of these is undoubtedly the German standard, DIN 6738, which has not met acceptance from either the archival or library communities, even within Germany. Like the United States, the Canadian Government has established a policy on the use of permanent paper. However, in trying to devise specifications for that paper, it met with even stiffer resistance than had NISO, ASTM, or ISO to the requirement that the paper not contain a significant quantity of lignin.
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