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S.Doc.107-15 Resolved that the United States Federal ...
107th Congress, 2d Session Document No. 13 Committee on Appropriations UNITED STATES SENATE 135th Anniversary ------------------------------- 1867-2002 <GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT> U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 2002 ``The legislative control of the purse is the central pillar-- the central pillar--upon which the constitutional temple of checks and balances and separation of powers rests, and if that pillar is shaken, the temple will fall. It is . . . central to the fundamental liberty of the American people.'' Senator Robert C. Byrd, Chairman Senate Appropriations Committee United States Senate Committee on Appropriations ONE HUNDRED SEVENTH CONGRESS Robert C. Byrd, West Virginia, Chairman Ted Stevens, Alaska, Daniel K. Inouye, Hawaii Ranking Ernest F. Hollings, South Carolina Thad Cochran, Patrick J. Leahy, Vermont Mississippi Tom Harkin, Iowa Arlen Specter, Barbara A. Mikulski, Maryland Pennsylvania Harry Reid, Nevada Pete V. Domenici, New Herb Kohl, Wisconsin Mexico Patty Murray, Washington Christopher S. Bond, Byron L. Dorgan, North Dakota Missouri Dianne Feinstein, California Mitch McConnell, Richard J. Durbin, Illinois Kentucky Tim Johnson, South Dakota Conrad Burns, Montana Mary L. Landrieu, Louisiana Richard C. Shelby, Jack Reed, Rhode Island Alabama Judd Gregg, New Hampshire Robert F. Bennett, Utah Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Colorado Larry Craig, Idaho Kay Bailey Hutchison, Texas Mike DeWine, Ohio Terrence E. Sauvain, Staff Director Charles Kieffer, Deputy Staff Director Steven J. Cortese, Minority Staff Director Subcommittee Membership, One Hundred Seventh Congress Senator Byrd, as chairman of the Committee, and Senator Stevens, as ranking minority member of the Committee, are ex officio members of all subcommittees of which they are not regular members. ------------ AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND RELATED AGENCIES Senators Kohl,\1\ Harkin, Dorgan, Feinstein, Durbin, Johnson, Murray, Cochran,\2\ Specter, Bond, McConnell, Burns, Craig. (7-6) COMMERCE, JUSTICE, STATE, AND THE JUDICIARY Senators Hollings,\1\ Inouye, Mikulski, Leahy, Kohl, Murray, Reed, Gregg,\2\ Stevens, Domenici, McConnell, Hutchison, Campbell. (7-6) DEFENSE Senators Inouye,\1\ Hollings, Byrd, Leahy, Harkin, Dorgan, Durbin, Reid, Feinstein, Kohl, Stevens,\2\ Cochran, Specter, Domenici, Bond, McConnell, Shelby, Gregg, Hutchison. (10-9) DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Senators Landrieu \1\, Durbin, Reed, DeWine,\2\ Hutchison. (3-2) ENERGY AND WATER DEVELOPMENT Senators Reid,\1\ Byrd, Hollings, Murray, Dorgan, Feinstein, Harkin, Domenici,\2\ Cochran, McConnell, Bennett, Burns, Craig. (7-6) FOREIGN OPERATIONS Senators Leahy,\1\ Inouye, Harkin, Mikulski, Durbin, Johnson, Landrieu, Reed, McConnell,\2\ Specter, Gregg, Shelby, Bennett, Campbell, Bond. (8-7) INTERIOR Senators Byrd,\1\ Leahy, Hollings, Reid, Dorgan, Feinstein, Murray, Inouye, Burns,\2\ Stevens, Cochran, Domenici, Bennett, Gregg, Campbell. (8-7) LABOR, HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, EDUCATION Senators Harkin,\1\ Hollings, Inouye, Reid, Kohl, Murray, Landrieu, Byrd, Specter,\2\ Cochran, Gregg, Craig, Hutchison, Stevens, DeWine. (8-7) LEGISLATIVE BRANCH Senators Durbin,\1\ Johnson, Reed, Bennett,\2\ Stevens. (3-2) MILITARY CONSTRUCTION Senators Feinstein,\1\ Inouye, Johnson, Landrieu, Reid, Hutchison,\2\ Burns, Craig, DeWine. (5-4) TRANSPORTATION Senators Murray,\1\ Byrd, Mikulski, Reid, Kohl, Durbin, Leahy, Shelby,\2\ Specter, Bond, Bennett, Campbell, Hutchison. (7-6) TREASURY AND GENERAL GOVERNMENT Senators Dorgan,\1\ Mikulski, Landrieu, Reed, Campbell,\2\ Shelby, DeWine. (4-3) VA-HUD-INDEPENDENT AGENCIES Senators Mikulski,\1\ Leahy, Harkin, Byrd, Kohl, Johnson, Hollings, Bond,\2\ Burns, Shelby, Craig, Domenici, DeWine. (7-6) Contents Page Committee membership, One hundred seventh Congress-------- V Subcommittee membership, One hundred seventh Congress----- VII Introduction---------------------------------------------- XI A History of the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Appropriations Process in the Senate-------------- 1 The Budget Cycle------------------------------------------ 25 Chairmen of the Senate Committee on Appropriations-------- 31 Biographies of Committee Chairmen------------------------- 35 Membership of the Committee: By Congress and Session-------------------------------------------85 By Subcommittee Memberships--------------------------------------129 By State and Term of Service-------------------------------------197 Alphabetical Listing of Members of the Committee-----------------207 The Committee Rooms--------------------------------------- 215 Staff Directors to the Committee-------------------------- 219 Standing Rules of the Senate Relating to Appropriations--- 221 S. Res. 337 In the Senate of the United States, October 9, 2002. Resolved, That there be printed with illustrations as a Senate document a compilation of materials entitled ``Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, 135th Anniversary, 1867-2002'', and that there be printed two thousand additional copies of such document for the use of the Committee on Appropriations. Attest: Jeri Thomson, Secretary. Introduction March 9, 2002, marked the 135th anniversary of the creation of the Committee on Appropriations of the United States Senate. During that period, the 285 members led by 24 different chairmen have helped guide the financial operations of the Federal Government through wars, depressions, constitutional crises, resignation of a President, impeachments of Presidents, and the assassinations of Presidents. The work of the Senate Appropriations Committee is demonstrative of how the Government goes on, during the worst of times as well as the best of times. The Appropriations Committee continues to provide the funds for the workings of the American Government, to enhance our domestic welfare, and to ensure our national security. The Committee's work has affected the lives and the well-being of every American and the welfare of countless millions spread over the surface of the globe. It is believed that the material assembled herein will be of value to the members of the Committee, the Congress generally, and students of Government interested in the development of the congressional appropriations process. PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF HON. ROBERT C. BYRD, CHAIRMAN, COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS UNITED STATES SENATE 107TH CONGRESS A History of the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Appropriations Process in the Senate I. THE FIRST CENTURY AND A HALF: 1789-1946 ``THE POWER OVER THE PURSE'' The appropriating power of Congress rests upon the authority conferred by Article I, section 9, of the U.S. Constitution: No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. The experiences of the Continental Congress left no doubt in the minds of the Founding Fathers about the importance of placing the ultimate control over funds in the hands of those who were directly responsible to the people. James Madison Federalist Paper No. 58 cited this point succinctly: This power over the purse may, in fact, be regarded as the most complete and effectual weapon with which any constitution can arm the immediate representatives of the people, for obtaining a redress of every grievance, and for carrying into effect every just and salutary measure. Since adoption of the Constitution, no one has seriously questioned the exclusive right of Congress to appropriate funds or the corollary authority to specify the objects of appropriations and the amounts of specific appropriations. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, however, less agreement existed regarding the degree of control that Congress should exercise over appropriations and over expenditures once appropriations had been made. In 1789 the First Congress made the Secretary of the Treasury responsible for compiling and reporting estimates of the public revenues and expenditures, but failed to give him the authority to review expenditure estimates and to oversee the use of appropriations. During the Presidency of George Washington, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton favored wide executive discretion, based on lump-sum congressional appropriations, with the Treasury Secretary having broad authority in his role as a minister of finance and an agent of and adviser to Congress. The administration of Thomas Jefferson, however, took a different approach. Jefferson named Albert Gallatin as Secretary of the Treasury, who as a Member of the House of Representatives had advocated legislative control over spending through use of specific appropriations. Jefferson's first message to Congress in 1801 spelled out this philosophy: In our care, too, of the public contributions intrusted to our direction it would be prudent to multiply barriers against their dissipation by appropriating specific sums to every specific purpose susceptible of definition; by disallowing all applications of money varying from the appropriation in object or transcending it in amount; by reducing the undefined field of contingencies and thereby circumscribing discretionary powers over money; and by bringing back to a single department all accountabilities for money, where the examinations may be prompt, efficacious, and uniform. Acceptance of congressional control in theory, however, did not dissuade the executive departments from seeking loopholes in the law as they spent the funds appropriated. Departments even made expenditures on a deficiency basis, forcing Congress to appropriate new funds for the remainder of a year. They also transferred appropriations without specific authority, let contracts in anticipation of appropriations, and carried forward unexpended balances, despite the enactment in 1795 of a law directing that any unexpended balances should be transferred to the surplus fund. Mingling of appropriations was not uncommon, and the loosest of control was exercised over the use of appropriations once they were made. As early as 1806, John Randolph, the chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, deplored the decline of congressional fiscal control, stating that appropriations were ``a matter of form, or less than a shadow of a shade, a mere cobweb against expenditures.'' Congress made periodic attempts to regain authority over the purse strings of the Nation. In 1802, it instituted a postaudit expenditure review, which it strengthened in 1816. An 1809 act required public officials to account for appropriations solely on the basis of the purpose of the appropriation. An 1820 law required the Secretaries of War and Navy to submit annually their estimated financial requirements, together with a statement of the unexpended balances still available from previous appropriations. As time went on, other departments of the Government were required to submit similar information. An 1823 act prohibited the advance of public funds prior to appropriations. Despite these efforts, an almost constant tug of war between the executive and legislative branches of Government continued throughout the 19th century. While Congress recognized its responsibility to provide legislative oversight of the way funds were used, it was reluctant to impose rigid controls in the event of an emergency. Furthermore, individual members frequently favored Government activities that would have been restricted by limitations on appropriations. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATIONS PROCESS In the first two congresses, the general appropriations were made in single bills. The first appropriations bill of record, in 1789, appropriated $639,000 and read as follows: An act making appropriations for the service of the present year. Section 1. Be it enacted, etc., That there be appropriated for the service of the present year, to be paid out of the moneys which arise either from the requisitions heretofore made upon the several States or from the duties on impost and tonnage, the following sums, viz: A sum not exceeding $216,000 for defraying the expenses of the
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