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107th Congress, 2d Session                               Document No. 13
                                                      
 
                       Committee on Appropriations


                          UNITED STATES SENATE


                            135th Anniversary

                       -------------------------------

                                1867-2002

<GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT>

                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                            WASHINGTON : 2002

                                     

    ``The legislative control of the purse is the central pillar--
  the central pillar--upon which the constitutional temple of checks 
  and balances and separation of powers rests, and if that pillar is 
  shaken, the temple will fall. It is . . . central to the 
  fundamental liberty of the American people.''

                                    Senator Robert C. Byrd, Chairman
                                     Senate Appropriations Committee
                          United States Senate

                       Committee on Appropriations


                      ONE HUNDRED SEVENTH CONGRESS

  Robert C. Byrd, West Virginia, Chairman        Ted Stevens, Alaska, 
  Daniel K. Inouye, Hawaii                         Ranking
  Ernest F. Hollings, South Carolina             Thad Cochran, 
  Patrick J. Leahy, Vermont                        Mississippi
  Tom Harkin, Iowa                               Arlen Specter, 
  Barbara A. Mikulski, Maryland                    Pennsylvania
  Harry Reid, Nevada                             Pete V. Domenici, New 
  Herb Kohl, Wisconsin                             Mexico
  Patty Murray, Washington                       Christopher S. Bond, 
  Byron L. Dorgan, North Dakota                    Missouri
  Dianne Feinstein, California                   Mitch McConnell, 
  Richard J. Durbin, Illinois                      Kentucky
  Tim Johnson, South Dakota                      Conrad Burns, Montana
  Mary L. Landrieu, Louisiana                    Richard C. Shelby, 
  Jack Reed, Rhode Island                          Alabama
                                                 Judd Gregg, New 
                                                   Hampshire
                                                 Robert F. Bennett, Utah
                                                 Ben Nighthorse 
                                                   Campbell, Colorado
                                                 Larry Craig, Idaho
                                                 Kay Bailey Hutchison, 
                                                   Texas
                                                 Mike DeWine, Ohio

                   Terrence E. Sauvain, Staff Director
                 Charles Kieffer, Deputy Staff Director
               Steven J. Cortese, Minority Staff Director
          Subcommittee Membership, One Hundred Seventh Congress

   Senator Byrd, as chairman of the Committee, and Senator Stevens, as 
ranking minority member of the Committee, are ex officio members of all 
subcommittees of which they are not regular members.

                              ------------

  AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND RELATED AGENCIES
  Senators Kohl,\1\ Harkin, Dorgan, Feinstein, Durbin, 
Johnson, Murray, Cochran,\2\ Specter, Bond, McConnell, 
Burns, Craig. (7-6)

       COMMERCE, JUSTICE, STATE, AND THE JUDICIARY
  Senators Hollings,\1\ Inouye, Mikulski, Leahy, Kohl, 
Murray, Reed, Gregg,\2\ Stevens, Domenici, McConnell, 
Hutchison, Campbell. (7-6)

                         DEFENSE
  Senators Inouye,\1\ Hollings, Byrd, Leahy, Harkin, 
Dorgan, Durbin, Reid, Feinstein, Kohl, Stevens,\2\ 
Cochran, Specter, Domenici, Bond, McConnell, Shelby, 
Gregg, Hutchison. (10-9)

                  DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
  Senators Landrieu \1\, Durbin, Reed, DeWine,\2\ 
Hutchison. (3-2)

              ENERGY AND WATER DEVELOPMENT
  Senators Reid,\1\ Byrd, Hollings, Murray, Dorgan, 
Feinstein, Harkin, Domenici,\2\ Cochran, McConnell, 
Bennett, Burns, Craig. (7-6)

                   FOREIGN OPERATIONS
  Senators Leahy,\1\ Inouye, Harkin, Mikulski, Durbin, 
Johnson, Landrieu, Reed, McConnell,\2\ Specter, Gregg, 
Shelby, Bennett, Campbell, Bond. (8-7)

                        INTERIOR
  Senators Byrd,\1\ Leahy, Hollings, Reid, Dorgan, 
Feinstein, Murray, Inouye, Burns,\2\ Stevens, Cochran, 
Domenici, Bennett, Gregg, Campbell. (8-7)
       LABOR, HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, EDUCATION
  Senators Harkin,\1\ Hollings, Inouye, Reid, Kohl, 
Murray, Landrieu, Byrd, Specter,\2\ Cochran, Gregg, 
Craig, Hutchison, Stevens, DeWine. (8-7)
                   LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
  Senators Durbin,\1\ Johnson, Reed, Bennett,\2\ 
Stevens. (3-2)
                  MILITARY CONSTRUCTION
  Senators Feinstein,\1\ Inouye, Johnson, Landrieu, 
Reid, Hutchison,\2\ Burns, Craig, DeWine. (5-4)
                     TRANSPORTATION
  Senators Murray,\1\ Byrd, Mikulski, Reid, Kohl, 
Durbin, Leahy, Shelby,\2\ Specter, Bond, Bennett, 
Campbell, Hutchison. (7-6)
             TREASURY AND GENERAL GOVERNMENT
  Senators Dorgan,\1\ Mikulski, Landrieu, Reed, 
Campbell,\2\ Shelby, DeWine. (4-3)
               VA-HUD-INDEPENDENT AGENCIES
  Senators Mikulski,\1\ Leahy, Harkin, Byrd, Kohl, 
Johnson, Hollings, Bond,\2\ Burns, Shelby, Craig, 
Domenici, DeWine. (7-6)
                                Contents

                                                                    Page
  Committee membership, One hundred seventh Congress--------           V
  Subcommittee membership, One hundred seventh Congress-----         VII
  Introduction----------------------------------------------          XI
  A History of the Senate Committee on Appropriations and 
      the Appropriations Process in the Senate--------------           1
  The Budget Cycle------------------------------------------          25
  Chairmen of the Senate Committee on Appropriations--------          31
  Biographies of Committee Chairmen-------------------------          35
  Membership of the Committee:
    By Congress and Session-------------------------------------------85
    By Subcommittee Memberships--------------------------------------129
    By State and Term of Service-------------------------------------197
    Alphabetical Listing of Members of the Committee-----------------207

  The Committee Rooms---------------------------------------         215
  Staff Directors to the Committee--------------------------         219
  Standing Rules of the Senate Relating to Appropriations---         221
          S. Res. 337
                           In the Senate of the United States,
                                              October 9, 2002.

  Resolved, That there be printed with illustrations as a Senate 
document a compilation of materials entitled ``Committee on 
Appropriations, United States Senate, 135th Anniversary, 1867-2002'', 
and that there be printed two thousand additional copies of such 
document for the use of the Committee on Appropriations.

  Attest:

                                      Jeri Thomson, Secretary.
                              Introduction

  March 9, 2002, marked the 135th anniversary of the creation of the 
Committee on Appropriations of the United States Senate. During that 
period, the 285 members led by 24 different chairmen have helped guide 
the financial operations of the Federal Government through wars, 
depressions, constitutional crises, resignation of a President, 
impeachments of Presidents, and the assassinations of Presidents. The 
work of the Senate Appropriations Committee is demonstrative of how the 
Government goes on, during the worst of times as well as the best of 
times. The Appropriations Committee continues to provide the funds for 
the workings of the American Government, to enhance our domestic 
welfare, and to ensure our national security. The Committee's work has 
affected the lives and the well-being of every American and the welfare 
of countless millions spread over the surface of the globe.

  It is believed that the material assembled herein will be of value to 
the members of the Committee, the Congress generally, and students of 
Government interested in the development of the congressional 
appropriations process.


                     PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF

                     HON. ROBERT C. BYRD, CHAIRMAN,

                       COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS

                          UNITED STATES SENATE

                             107TH CONGRESS
A History of the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Appropriations 
Process in the Senate

I. THE FIRST CENTURY AND A HALF: 1789-1946

``THE POWER OVER THE PURSE''

The appropriating power of Congress rests upon the authority conferred by 
Article I, section 9, of the U.S. Constitution:

    No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of 
 Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of 
the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published 
                                                  from time to time.

The experiences of the Continental Congress left no doubt in the minds of 
the Founding Fathers about the importance of placing the ultimate control 
over funds in the hands of those who were directly responsible to the 
people. James Madison Federalist Paper No. 58 cited this point succinctly:

    This power over the purse may, in fact, be regarded as the most 
  complete and effectual weapon with which any constitution can arm 
the immediate representatives of the people, for obtaining a redress 
    of every grievance, and for carrying into effect every just and 
                                                   salutary measure.

Since adoption of the Constitution, no one has seriously questioned the 
exclusive right of Congress to appropriate funds or the corollary authority 
to specify the objects of appropriations and the amounts of specific 
appropriations. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, however, less 
agreement existed regarding the degree of control that Congress should 
exercise over appropriations and over expenditures once appropriations had 
been made. In 1789 the First Congress made the Secretary of the Treasury 
responsible for compiling and reporting estimates of the public revenues 
and expenditures, but failed to give him the authority to review 
expenditure estimates and to oversee the use of appropriations. During the 
Presidency of George Washington, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander 
Hamilton favored wide executive discretion, based on lump-sum congressional 
appropriations, with the Treasury Secretary having broad authority in his 
role as a minister of finance and an agent of and adviser to Congress. The 
administration of Thomas Jefferson, however, took a different approach. 
Jefferson named Albert Gallatin as Secretary of the Treasury, who as a 
Member of the House of Representatives had advocated legislative control 
over spending through use of specific appropriations. Jefferson's first 
message to Congress in 1801 spelled out this philosophy:

     In our care, too, of the public contributions intrusted to our 
   direction it would be prudent to multiply barriers against their 
dissipation by appropriating specific sums to every specific purpose 
susceptible of definition; by disallowing all applications of money 
     varying from the appropriation in object or transcending it in 
amount; by reducing the undefined field of contingencies and thereby 
circumscribing discretionary powers over money; and by bringing back 
   to a single department all accountabilities for money, where the 
               examinations may be prompt, efficacious, and uniform.

Acceptance of congressional control in theory, however, did not dissuade 
the executive departments from seeking loopholes in the law as they spent 
the funds appropriated. Departments even made expenditures on a deficiency 
basis, forcing Congress to appropriate new funds for the remainder of a 
year. They also transferred appropriations without specific authority, let 
contracts in anticipation of appropriations, and carried forward unexpended 
balances, despite the enactment in 1795 of a law directing that any 
unexpended balances should be transferred to the surplus fund. Mingling of 
appropriations was not uncommon, and the loosest of control was exercised 
over the use of appropriations once they were made. As early as 1806, John 
Randolph, the chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, deplored the 
decline of congressional fiscal control, stating that appropriations were 
``a matter of form, or less than a shadow of a shade, a mere cobweb against 
expenditures.''

Congress made periodic attempts to regain authority over the purse strings 
of the Nation. In 1802, it instituted a postaudit expenditure review, which 
it strengthened in 1816. An 1809 act required public officials to account 
for appropriations solely on the basis of the purpose of the appropriation. 
An 1820 law required the Secretaries of War and Navy to submit annually 
their estimated financial requirements, together with a statement of the 
unexpended balances still available from previous appropriations. As time 
went on, other departments of the Government were required to submit 
similar information. An 1823 act prohibited the advance of public funds 
prior to appropriations.

Despite these efforts, an almost constant tug of war between the executive 
and legislative branches of Government continued throughout the 19th 
century. While Congress recognized its responsibility to provide 
legislative oversight of the way funds were used, it was reluctant to 
impose rigid controls in the event of an emergency. Furthermore, individual 
members frequently favored Government activities that would have been 
restricted by limitations on appropriations.

EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATIONS PROCESS

In the first two congresses, the general appropriations were made in single 
bills. The first appropriations bill of record, in 1789, appropriated 
$639,000 and read as follows:

        An act making appropriations for the service of the present 
                                                               year.
     Section 1. Be it enacted, etc., That there be appropriated for 
the service of the present year, to be paid out of the moneys which 
arise either from the requisitions heretofore made upon the several 
States or from the duties on impost and tonnage, the following sums, 
                                                                viz:
     A sum not exceeding $216,000 for defraying the expenses of the 

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