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S.Res. 10 (ats) To make effective reappointment of Deputy Senate Legal Counsel. [Agreed to Senate] ...
Calendar No. 184 106th CONGRESS 1st Session S. RES. 109 Relating to the activities of the National Islamic Front government in Sudan. _______________________________________________________________________ IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES May 27, 1999 Mr. Brownback (for himself, Mr. Frist, Mr. Hutchinson, Mr. Lautenberg, Mr. Mack, Mr. Lieberman, and Mr. Santorum) submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations June 30, 1999 Reported by Mr. Helms, with amendments and an amendment to the preamble [Omit the part struck through and insert the part printed in italic] _______________________________________________________________________ RESOLUTION Relating to the activities of the National Islamic Front government in Sudan. Whereas according to the United States Committee for Refugees (USCR), approximately 1,900,000 people have died in Sudan over the past decade due to war and war-related causes and famine, and millions more people in Sudan have been displaced from their homes and separated from their families, making this the deadliest war in the last decade in terms of mortality rates; Whereas the war policy of the National Islamic Front government in southern Sudan and the Nuba Mountains has brought untold suffering on innocent civilians and threatens the very survival of a whole generation of southern Sudanese; Whereas the people of the Nuba Mountains are at particular risk from this policy because they have been the specific target of a deliberate prohibition on international food aid, which has helped induce a man-made famine, and have been subject to the routine bombing of their civilian centers, including religious facilities, schools, and hospitals; Whereas the National Islamic Front government is deliberately and systematically committing crimes against humanity in southern Sudan and the Nuba Mountains; Whereas the National Islamic Front government has systematically and repeatedly obstructed the peace efforts of the Inter-governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) in Sudan over the past several years; Whereas the Declaration of Principles put forth by Inter-governmental Authority for Development mediators provides the most fruitful negotiating framework for resolving problems in Sudan and bringing lasting peace to Sudan; Whereas humanitarian conditions in southern Sudan, especially in Bahr al-Ghazal, deteriorated in 1998 largely because of the decision of the National Islamic Front government to ban United Nations relief flights in those areas from February through April 1998; Whereas the National Islamic Front government continues to deny access by United Nations relief flights to certain locations in Sudan, including a blanket prohibition on flights to the Nuba Mountains, resulting in deterioration of humanitarian conditions; Whereas approximately 2,600,000 Sudanese were at risk of starvation in Sudan in late 1998, and the World Food Program currently estimates that 4,000,000 people are in need of emergency assistance in that area; Whereas the relief effort in Sudan coordinated by the United Nations, Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), failed to respond in a timely fashion to the humanitarian crisis in Sudan at the height of that crisis in 1998 and has allowed the National Islamic Front government to manipulate and obstruct relief efforts in Sudan; Whereas relief efforts in Sudan are further complicated by repeated airborne attacks by the National Islamic Front government on feeding centers, clinics, and other civilian targets in certain areas of Sudan; Whereas such relief efforts are further complicated by the looting and killing of innocent civilians by militias sponsored by the National Islamic Front government; Whereas these militias have carried out violent raids in Aweil East and West, Twic, and Gogrial counties in the Bahr al-Ghazal/Lakes Region, killing and displacing thousands of civilians, which reflects a deliberate ethic cleansing policy in these counties and in the Nuba Mountains; Whereas the National Islamic Front government has perpetrated a prolonged campaign of human rights abuses and discrimination throughout Sudan; Whereas the militias associated with the National Islamic Front government have engaged in the enslavement of innocent civilians, including children, women, and elderly; Whereas slave raids are commonly undertaken by the militias of the Popular Defense Force of the National Islamic Front as part of a self-declared jihad, or holy war, against the predominately Christian and traditional believers of southern Sudan; Whereas the Department of State in its report on Human Rights Practices for 1997 affirmed with respect to Sudan that ``reports and information from a variety of sources after February 1994 indicate that the number of cases of slavery, servitude, slave trade, and forced labor have increased alarmingly''; Whereas the Department of State in its report on Human Rights Practices for 1998 states with respect to Sudan that ``[c]redible reports persist of practices such as the sale and purchase of children, some in alleged slave markets''; Whereas the enslavement of people is considered a crime against humanity under international law; Whereas it is estimated that tens of thousands of Sudanese have been enslaved by militias sponsored by the National Islamic Front government; Whereas the former United Nations Special Rapporteur for Sudan, Gaspar Biro, and the present Special Rapporteur, Leonardo Franco, have reported on a number of occasions the routine practice of slavery in Sudan and the complicity of the National Islamic Front government in that practice; Whereas the National Islamic Front government abuses and tortures political opponents and innocent civilians in northern Sudan, and many people in northern Sudan have been killed by that government over the years; Whereas the vast majority of Muslims in Sudan do not <DELETED>prescribe </DELETED>subscribe to policies of National Islamic Front extremists, including the politicized practice of Islam, and moderate Muslims in Sudan have been specifically targeted by the National Islamic Front government; Whereas the National Islamic Front government is considered by much of the world community as a rogue state because of its support for international terrorism and its campaign of terrorism against its own people; Whereas according to the Department of State's Patterns of Global Terrorism Report, ``Sudan's support to terrorist organizations has included paramilitary training, indoctrination, money, travel documentation, safe passage, and refuge in Sudan''; Whereas the National Islamic Front government has been implicated in the assassination attempt of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia in 1995 and the World Trade Center bombing in New York City in 1993; Whereas the National Islamic Front government has permitted Sudan to be used by well known terrorist organizations as a refuge and training center; Whereas Osama bin-Laden, the Saudi-born financier of extremist groups and mastermind of the bombings of the United States embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, used Sudan as a base of operations for several years and continues to maintain economic interests there; Whereas on August 20, 1998, United States naval forces struck a suspected chemical weapons facility in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, in retaliation for those bombings; Whereas relations between the United States and Sudan continue to deteriorate because of human rights violations, the war policy of the National Islamic Front government in southern Sudan, and that government's support for international terrorism; Whereas in 1993 the United States Government placed Sudan on the list of seven states in the world that sponsor terrorism and imposed comprehensive sanctions on the National Islamic Front government in November 1997; and Whereas the struggle by the people of Sudan, and opposition forces to the National Islamic Front government, is a just struggle for freedom and democracy against that government: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the Senate-- (1) strongly condemns the National Islamic Front government in Sudan for its support for terrorism and its continued human rights violations; (2) strongly deplores the slave raids in southern Sudan and calls on the National Islamic Front government to end immediately the practice of slavery in Sudan; (3) calls on the United Nations Security Council-- (A) to condemn such slave raids and bring to justice those responsible for the crimes against humanity which such slave raids entail; (B) to implement the existing air embargo, and impose an arms embargo, on the National Islamic Front government; (C) to swiftly implement reforms of Operation Lifeline Sudan in order to enhance the independence of that operation from the National Islamic Front government; and (D) to determine whether or not the war policy of the National Islamic Front government in southern Sudan and the Nuba Mountains constitutes genocide; and (E) to implement the recommendations of the United Nations Special Rapporteur for Sudan, Leonardo Franco, who has called for the posting of human rights monitors throughout Sudan; and (4) calls on the President <DELETED>to take leadership on policies</DELETED>-- (A) to increase support for relief organizations working outside the umbrella of Operation Lifeline Sudan, including, in particular, the dedication of programs to and an increase in resources of organizations serving the Nuba Mountains; (B) to instruct the Agency for International Development (AID) and other appropriate agencies to-- (i) provide additional support to and coordinate activities with nongovernmental organizations involved in relief work in Sudan that work outside the umbrella of organizations supported by Operation Lifeline Sudan, including the Nuba Mountains; and (ii) enhance the independence of Operation Lifeline Sudan from the National Islamic Front government, including by removing that government's power of automatic veto over its operation; (C) to double the funds that are made available through the so-called STAR Program for the promotion of the rule of law to advance democracy, civil administration, and the judiciary, and the enhancement of infrastructure, in areas in Sudan that are controlled by the opposition to the National Islamic Front government; (D) to instruct the Agency for International Development to provide humanitarian assistance, including food, directly to indigenous <DELETED>service </DELETED>humanitarian groups in southern Sudan and the Nuba Mountains; (E) to intensify and expand United States diplomatic and economic pressure on the National Islamic Front government in conjunction with and urging other countries to impose sanctions regimes on that government that are similar to sanction regime imposed on that government by the United States; (F) to continue to enhance the peace process in Sudan supported by the Inter-governmental Authority for Development; and (G) to report to Congress not later than three months after the adoption of this resolution regarding the efforts or plans of the President to promote the end of slavery in Sudan. Calendar No. 184 106th CONGRESS 1st Session S. RES. 109 _______________________________________________________________________ RESOLUTION Relating to the activities of the National Islamic Front government in Sudan. _______________________________________________________________________ June 30, 1999 Reported with amendment and an amendment to the preamble
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