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T.Doc.104-23 PROTOCOL AMENDING ARTICLE VIII OF THE 1948 TAX CONVENTION WITH ...
104th Congress 1st Session _______________________________________________________________________ SENATE Treaty Doc. 104-22 EXTRADITION TREATY WITH BOLIVIA __________ MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TRANSMITTING THE EXTRADITION TREATY BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOLIVIA, SIGNED AT LA PAZ ON JUNE 27, 1995 <GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT> October 10, 1995.--Treaty was read the first time and, together with the accompanying papers, referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations and ordered to be printed for the use of the Senate LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL ---------- The White House, October 10, 1995. To the Senate of the United States: With a view to receiving the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith the Extradition Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia, signed at La Paz on June 27, 1995. I transmit also, for the information of the Senate, the report of the Department of State with respect to the Treaty, and copies of diplomatic notes dated June 27, 1995, which were exchanged at the time of signing of the Treaty. Those notes set forth the expectations of the two Governments regarding the types of assistance each Government would provide to the other in extradition proceedings, pursuant to Article XVI of the Treaty. The Treaty establishes the conditions and procedures for extradition between the United States and Bolivia. It also provides a legal basis for temporarily surrendering prisoners to stand trial for crimes against the laws of the Requesting State. The Treaty represents an important step in combatting narcotics trafficking and terrorism, by providing for the mandatory extradition of nationals of the Requested State in a broad range of serious criminal offenses. The provisions in this Treaty are substantively similar to those of other extradition treaties recently concluded by the United States. This Treaty will make a significant contribution to international cooperation in law enforcement. I recommend that the Senate give early and favorable consideration to the Treaty and give its advice and consent to ratification. William J. Clinton. LETTER OF SUBMITTAL ---------- Department of State, Washington, September 22, 1995. The President, The White House. The President: I have the honor to submit to you the Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia on Extradition (the ``Treaty''), signed at La Paz on June 27, 1995. I recommend that the Treaty be transmitted to the Senate for its advice and consent to ratification. Also enclosed, for the information of the Senate, are copies of diplomatic notes, dated June 27, 1995, which were exchanged by the Government of the United States and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia at the time the Treaty was signed. The notes set forth the Governments' expectations regarding the types of assistance each Government would provide to the other, pursuant to Article XVI of the Treaty, in extradition proceedings. The Treaty is substantively similar to other extradition treaties recently concluded by the United States. It represents a concerted effort by the Department of State and the Department of Justice to modernize the legal tools available for the extradition of serious offenders such as narcotics traffickers and terrorists. The Treaty will supersede the Treaty of Extradition currently in force between the United States and Bolivia, signed at La Paz April 21, 1900. Article I obligates each Party to extradite to the other, pursuant to the provisions of the Treaty, any person charged with, found guilty of, or sentenced for an offense described in Article II. In Article II, the Parties agree that an offense shall be extraditable if it is punishable under the laws of both parties by deprivation of liberty for a maximum period of more than one year or by a more severe penalty. The Article also provides that attempts or conspiracies to commit such offenses, or participation or association in their commission, are also extraditable offenses. Inclusion of a dual-criminality clause without a list of specific offenses covered by the Treaty (such as was included in older extradition treaties), obviates the need to renegotiate or supplement the Treaty as offenses become punishable under the laws of both parties. Among other things, Article II further provides that in determining whether an offense is covered under the Treaty, it shall be irrelevant whether or not the laws in the Contracting Parties place the offenses within the same category of offenses, contain the same elements, or describe the offense by the same terminology, as long as the underlying conduct is criminal in both States. With regard to offenses committed outside the territory of the Requesting State, the Article specifies that an offense covered under the Treaty shall be an extraditable one regardless of where the act or acts constituting the offense were committed. Article II also provides that, if extradition has been granted for an extraditable offense, it shall likewise be granted for any other offense specified in the extradition request, even if the latter is punishable by one year or less of deprivation of liberty, provided that all other requirements for extradition are met. Article III grants discretion to each Party to deny extradition of its own nationals, except with respect to certain specified offenses as to which extradition is mandatory irrespective of nationality. Such offenses include those with respect to which there is an obligation to establish criminal jurisdiction pursuant to multilateral international treaties in force with respect to the Parties, including the United Nations Convention Against the Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, done at Vienna on December 20, 1988, and certain international conventions against terrorism. Article III also renders mandatory the extradition of nationals for certain specified offenses, including, inter alia, murder, kidnapping, rape, drug- and terrorism-related offenses, and organized criminal activity. This provision also contains a catch-all for offenses punishable in both States by deprivation of liberty for a maximum period of at least ten years. Finally, extradition of nationals is mandatory for an attempt or conspiracy to commit, participation in, or association regarding the commission of any of the offenses described in the Article. Article IV sets forth bases for the discretionary denial of extradition. Article IV(1) provides that, when an offense for which extradition is sought is punishable by death under the laws of the Requesting State and is not so punishable under the laws of the Requested State, the Executive Authority of the Requested State may refuse extradition, unless the Requesting State provides assurances that the death penalty will not be imposed or, if imposed, will not be carried out. Article IV(2) allows the Parties to deny extradition for offenses under military law which are not offenses under ordinary criminal law. Article V describes the bases for the non-discretionary denial of extradition. Article V(1) states that extradition shall not be granted for political offenses. However, the provision expressly excludes from the reach of this exception several categories of offenses: (a) a murder of other willful crime against the person of a Head of State of one of the Contracting States, or of a member of the Head of State's family; (b) an offense for which both Parties are obliged pursuant to a multilateral international treaty to establish criminal jurisdiction (e.g., aircraft hijacking pursuant to The Hague Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, done at The Hague December 16, 1970, and entered into force October 14, 1971 (22 U.S.T. 1641; T.I.A.S. No. 7192); aircraft sabotage pursuant to the Montreal Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation, done at Montreal September 23, 1971, and entered into force January 26, 1973 (24 U.S.T. 564; T.I.A.S. No. 7570); narcotics trafficking under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, done at Vienna December 20, 1988, and entered into force November 11, 1990; and the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, done at New York on March 30, 1961, and entered into force December 13, 1964 (18 U.S.T. 1407; T.I.A.S No. 6298); and (c) a conspiracy or attempt to commit any of the offenses described above, or aiding or abetting a person who commits or attempts to commit those offenses. Article V(2) bars extradition when the person sought has been convicted or acquitted in the Requested State for the same offense, but does not bar extradition if the competent authorities in the Requested State have declined to prosecute or have decided to discontinue criminal proceedings previously initiated against the person sought for that offense. Articles VI and VII address the procedures by which extradition is to be accomplished. Article VI describes the documents that are required to support a request for extradition. Article VII establishes the procedures under which documents submitted pursuant to Article VI shall be received and admitted into evidence in the Requested State. Article VII also provides that all documents submitted by the Requesting State shall be translated into the language of the Requested State, at the expense of the Requesting State. Article VIII provides for the provisional arrest and detention of the person sought for no more than sixty days pending receipt by the Requested State of a fully documented extradition request in conformity with Article VI. The Article explicitly states that the release of the person sought upon expiration of the sixty-day period does not prejudice subsequent rearrest and extradition upon later delivery of the extradition request and supporting documents. Article IX specifies the procedures to govern the surrender and return of fugitives. The Requested State is requested to notify promptly the Requesting State of its decision on extradition and, if the request is denied in whole or in part, to provide an explanation for its denial. If the request is granted, and surrender is authorized, the person sought must be removed from the territory of the Requested State within the time prescribed by the laws or regulations (if any) of the Requested State. Article X sets forth criteria for decision by the Parties in cases where multiple States request the extradition of the same person. Article XI provides that is a person is being prosecuted or is serving a sentence in the Requested State, that State may (a) temporarily surrender the person to the Requesting State solely for the purpose of prosecution, or (b) defer surrender until the proceedings are concluded or the sentence is served. Article XII sets forth the rule of speciality for this treaty. It provides, subject to specific exceptions, that a person extradited under the Treaty may not be detained, tried, convicted, or punished for an offense other than that for which extradition has been granted. Similarly, the Requesting State may not surrender or transfer such person to a third State for an offense committed prior to the person's surrender under this Treaty. The Article articulates several exceptions to this rule: if the surrendering State consents; if the person extradited fails to leave the Requesting State within thirty days of being free to do so; or if, having left the Requesting State, the extradited person voluntarily returns to it. Article XIII permits surrender of the person sought without further proceedings if that person gives his or her consent. Article XIV provides that, to the extent permitted under its law, and with due respect to the rights of third parties, the Requested State may seige and surrender to the Requesting State property related to the offense for which extradition is requested. Article XV governs the transit through a Party's territory of a person being surrendered to the other Party by a third State. Article XVI contains provisions on representation, consultation, and expenses. Specifically, the competent authorities of the Requested State are required, by all legal means within their power, to advise, assist and represent the interests of the Requesting State in connection with the processing of extradition cases in the Requested State. Further, the parties agree, pursuant to this Article, to consult with each other to maintain and improve the procedures for implementation of the Treaty. The Requesting State shall bear the expenses related to the translation of documents and the transportation of the person surrendered. The Article also specifies that neither State shall make any pecuniary claim against the other State arising out of the arrest, detention, custody, examination, or surrender of a person sought under the Treaty. At the time the Treaty was signed, the Governments of the United States and the Republic of Bolivia exchanged diplomatic notes setting forth their expectations regarding the types of assistance each Government would provide to the other in extradition proceedings. A copy of those notes is provided to the Senate for its information. Article XVII, like analogous provisions in almost all recent United States extradition treaties, states that the Treaty is retroactive, in that it shall apply to offenses committed before as well as after the date the Treaty enters into force. In addition, the Treaty will apply to cases still pending at the time of its entry into force. Article XVIII contains final clauses dealing with the Treaty's ratification, entry into force and termination. Paragraph 1 states that the Treaty shall be subject to ratification; that the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged as soon as possible; and that the Treaty shall enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification. Paragraph 2 provides that upon entry into force of the Treaty, the Treaty of Extradition done at La Paz on April 21, 1900, shall cease to have effect. Paragraph 3 provides that either Party may terminate the Treaty at any time by giving written notice to the other Party, which termination shall be effective six months after the date of notice. A Technical Analysis explaining in detail the provisions of the Treaty is being prepared by the United States negotiating delegation and will be submitted separately to the Senate
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