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T.Doc.108-15 PROTOCOL AMENDING ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL AMENDING INVESTMENT TREATY WITH ...


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I3029˙09118

I372003

I31108T4th Congress T31st Session

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I33SENATE

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I35T4Treaty Doc.

I45108˙0914

I36I10Q96Q30

I10TAXATION CONVENTION WITH JAPAN


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I18THE˙1A˙1A˙1APRESIDENT˙1A˙1A˙1AOF˙1A˙1A˙1ATHE˙1A˙1A˙1AUNITED˙1A˙1A˙1ASTATES

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I08CONVENTION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME, SIGNED AT WASHINGTON ON NOVEMBER 6, 2003, TOGETHER WITH A PROTOCOL AND AN EXCHANGE OF NOTES (THE ``CONVENTION'')Q52

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I08T4December T19, 2003._Convention was read the first time, and together with the accompanying papers, referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations and ordered to be printed for the use of the Senate

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I74T2LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Q02


I58T4The White House, T3December 9, 2003.

I55To the Senate of the United States: 



I21I transmit herewith, for Senate advice and consent to ratification, the Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income, signed at Washington on November 6, 2003, together with a Protocol and an exchange of notes (the ``Convention''). I also transmit, for the information of the Senate, the report of the Department of State concerning the Convention. 

I21This Convention would replace the Convention between the United States of America and Japan for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income, signed at Tokyo on March 8, 1971. 

I21This Convention, which is similar to tax treaties between the United States and other developed nations, provides rules specifying the circumstances under which income that arises in one of the countries and is derived by residents of the other country may be taxed by the country in which income arises, providing for maximum source-country withholding tax rates that may be applied to various types of income and providing for protection from double taxation of income. The proposed Convention also provides rules designed to ensure that the benefits of the Convention are not available to persons that are engaged in treaty shopping. Also included in the proposed Convention are rules necessary for administering the Convention. 

I21I recommend that the Senate give early and favorable consideration to this Convention, and that the Senate give its advice and consent to the ratification of the Convention. 

I58T4George W. Bush.
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I74T2LETTER OF SUBMITTAL 

I02

I52Department of States, 

I53Washington, 

I55T1November 21, 2003.



I54The T4President, 
I55The White House.

I21T4The President:T1 I have the honor to submit to you, with a view to its transmission to the Senate for advice and consent to ratification, the Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income, signed at Washington on November 6, 2003, together with a Protocol and an exchange of notes (``the Convention''). 


I21This Convention would replace the current convention between the United States and Japan that was signed at Tokyo on March 8, 1971. This proposed Convention generally follows the pattern of the U.S. Model Income Tax Convention while incorporating some features of recent U.S. tax treaties with other developed countries. There are, however, as with all bilateral income tax conventions, some variations from these norms. In the proposed Convention, these differences reflect particular aspects of Japanese law and treaty policy, and the interaction of U.S. and Japanese tax law. 


I21The proposed Convention provides rules specifying the circumstances under which income that arises in one of the countries and is derived by residents of the other country may be taxed by the country in which income arises (the ``source'' country), providing for maximum source-country withholding tax rates that may be applied to various types of income and providing for protection from double taxation of income. The proposed Convention also provides rules designed to ensure that the benefits of the Convention are not available to persons that are engaged in treaty shopping. Also included in the proposed Convention are rules necessary for administering the Convention. 

I21The maximum source-country withholding tax rates on investment income provided in the proposed Convention (Article 10) are significantly lower than those in the existing convention. Direct investment dividends and portfolio dividends are subject to maximum source-country withholding tax rates of 5 and 10 percent, respectively. Further, the proposed Convention provides for the elimination of source-country withholding tax for dividends received from certain controlled (e.g., more than 50-percent-owned) corporate subsidiaries and dividends received by pension funds. Dividends paid by non-taxable conduit entities, such as U.S. Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts and certain similar Japanese entities, are subject to special rules to ensure the appropriate treatment under the Convention of income earned through such entities. 

I21Interest generally is subject to a maximum source country withholding tax rate of 10 percent under the proposed Convention (Article 11), as under the existing convention. However, the proposed Convention provides for the elimination of the source-country withholding tax for the following categories of interest that are subject in the existing convention to the provisions allowing the maximum 10 percent withholding tax rate: interest received by banks (including investment banks), insurance companies, registered securities dealers, or other financial institutions; interest received by pension funds; and interest earned on sales of equipment or merchandise on credit. Interest derived by each of the Governments of the two countries and certain instrumentalities of those Governments, as well as interest on debt guaranteed by Government agencies, also is exempt from source-country withholding tax. The provisions of the proposed Convention generally applicable to interest do not apply to excess inclusions with respect to residual interests in Real Estate Mortgage Interest Conduits. 

I21Royalties are exempt from source-country withholding tax under the proposed Convention (Article 12), as they are under the U.S. Model and recent U.S. tax treaties with developed
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I70countries. The existing convention provides for a maximum source-country withholding tax rate of 10 percent on royalties. 

I21As with the U.S. Model, but unlike the existing convention, the proposed Convention (Article 21) provides that income other than the income specifically described in the Convention is exempt from source-country taxation. 



I21The taxation of gains under the proposed Convention (Article 13) generally follows the U.S. Model. Gains derived from the sale of real property and from real property interests may be taxed by the country in which the property is located. Likewise, gains from the sale of personal property pertaining to a fixed base or forming part of a permanent establishment situated in a country may be taxed in that country. The proposed Convention also includes a narrow provision providing that a country may, in certain circumstances, tax gains derived from the sale of shares in financial institutions that have benefited from a substantial bail-out by the Government of that country. All other gains, including gains from the alienation of ships, aircraft and containers used in international traffic and gains from the sale of stock in a corporation not described above, are taxable only in the country of residence of the seller. 



I21As with the U.S. Model, the proposed Convention (Article 7) provides generally that one country may tax the business profits of a resident of the other country only if such profits are attributable to a permanent establishment located in the first country. The proposed Convention also provides that income that is earned during the life of a permanent establishment, but is deferred and not received until after the permanent establishment no longer exists, is attributable to the permanent establishment, as under U.S. domestic law. As do all recent U.S. tax treaties, the proposed Convention preserves the right of the United States to impose its branch taxes in addition to the basic corporate tax on the business income of a branch. As in some U.S. tax treaties, the proposed Convention provides that the United States generally will not impose the excise tax on insurance policies issued by foreign insurers if the policy premiums are derived by a Japanese enterprise, unless the risks covered by such premiums are reinsured with persons that are subject to the excise tax. 



I21Consistent with the U.S. Model, the proposed Convention (Article 8) permits only the country of residence to tax profits from the international operation of ships or aircraft and income from the use, maintenance or rental of containers used in international traffic. This reciprocal exemption also extends to income from the rental of ships and aircraft if the rental income is incidental to income from the operation of ships and aircraft in international traffic. However, income from the international rental of ships and aircraft that is not incidental to operation of ships and aircraft in international traffic is treated as business profits and therefore is subject to tax by the source country only if it is attributable to a permanent establishment in that country. 



I21The taxation of income from the performance of personal services under the proposed Convention (Articles 14 through 16) is essentially the same as that under recent U.S. tax treaties with developed countries. Unlike the U.S. Model, but consistent with the OECD Model Income Tax Convention, under the proposed Convention, income from independent personal services is categorized as business profits and is therefore subject to tax in a country only if it is attributable to a permanent establishment in that country. Accordingly, the proposed Convention contains no separate article regarding the treatment of independent personal services. This update simplifies the Convention. The rules for the taxation of pensions, annuities, and support payments included in the proposed Convention (Article 17) provide generally that pensions and annuities may only be taxed by the country of residence of the recipient of such payments, and that support payments may only be taxed by the country of residence of the payor, or in some circumstances not at all. These rules generally are consistent with, although less comprehensive than, the comparable rules in the U.S. Model. The Convention includes specific provisions for income earned by government employees, students and teachers (Articles 18 through 20). 


I21The proposed Convention contains rules coordinating the treatment of income earned through entities that are subject to tax in one country but are treated as fiscally transparent entities in the other country (Article 4). These rules reach results consistent with the rules in the U.S. Model and in recent U.S. tax treaties. 


I21The proposed Convention (Article 22) contains comprehensive rules designed to ensure that the benefits of the Convention are not available to persons that are engaged in treaty shopping. The provisions are similar to those found in the U.S. Model and in all recent U.S. tax treaties, with refinements to accommodate Japanese laws and practices. In addition, the proposed Convention provides rules with respect to categories of investment income (dividends on preferred stock, interest, royalties, and other income) designed to prevent the use of conduit arrangements to derive treaty benefits. Under the proposed Convention (Article 1), the United States retains for a period of ten years its right to tax former citizens and longterm residents whose loss of citizenship or long-term resident status had, as one of its principal purposes, the avoidance of tax. 
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I21Like the existing convention, the proposed Convention contains special rules to account for the Japanese remittance tax system (Article 4). Unlike the United States, Japan taxes certain Japanese residents on non-Japanese-source income only when that income is repatriated to Japan. To account for this system, a Japanese resident taxed on a remittance basis may obtain the benefits of the proposed Convention only upon remittance of the income in question. 



I21The proposed Convention provides relief from double taxation in a manner consistent with the U.S. Model. The proposed Convention also contains a re-sourcing rule to ensure that a U.S. resident can obtain a U.S. foreign tax credit for Japanese taxes paid when the Convention assigns to Japan primary taxing rights over an item of gross income. A comparable rule applies for purposes of the Japanese foreign tax credit. Although the U.S. Model does not contain a re-sourcing rule, the existing convention contains rules for the sourcing of income and re-sourcing rules are included in many U.S. tax treaties. 



I21The proposed Convention provides for non-discriminatory treatment (i.e., national treatment) by one country of residents and nationals of the other (Article 24). Also included in the proposed Convention are rules necessary for administering the Convention, including rules for the resolution of disputes under the Convention, as well as provisions on the exchange of information and on assistance in collection of taxes (Articles 25 through 27). The proposed Convention contains a provision not contained in the U.S. Model specifically providing for consultation upon a substantial change by one country in its laws relevant to the Convention (Article 29). 



I21The proposed Convention will enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification (Article 30). The Convention will be applicable, with respect of taxes withheld at source: for amounts taxable (in the case of Japan) or paid or credited (in the case of the United States) on or after July 1 of the calendar year in which the Convention enters into force if the Convention enters into force before April 1 of a calendar year; or for amounts taxable (in the case of Japan) or paid or credited (in the case of the United States) on or after January 1 of the calendar year next following the year in which the Convention enters into force if the Convention enters into force after March 31 of a calendar year. The Convention will be applicable with respect to other taxes for any taxable year (in the case of Japan) and for taxable periods (in the case of the United States) beginning on or after January 1 of the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force. The proposed Convention contains a rule under which persons may elect to continue to apply the provisions of the existing convention for one additional year. Special provisions are included in the proposed Convention that allow teachers and students who are receiving benefits under the provisions applicable to teachers and students in the existing convention to continue to receive those benefits until the end of the period for such benefits under the existing convention. 



I21The new Convention will remain in force until terminated by one of the countries (Article 31). Either country may terminate the Convention after 5 years from the date on which the Convention enters into force by giving at least six months prior notice through diplomatic channels. 



I21A technical memorandum explaining in detail the provisions of the proposed Convention will be prepared by the Department of the Treasury and will be submitted separately to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 



I21The Department of the Treasury and the Department of State cooperated in the negotiation of the Convention. It has the full approval of both Departments. 



I25Respectfully submitted, 


I58T4Colin L. Powell.T1


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